Subscribe

RSS Feed (xml)

Powered By

Powered by Blogger

Jun 24, 2008

VENKY

Tirumala trip on Jun 14, 2008




Myself, Swaminathan and Oracle Team we started at bangalore on 13th June, 2008 reached Tirupathi by about 12.30 am on 14th June, 2008. we had dinner next to the bus stand and took a jeep till alipiri, the starting point to climb up the hill. this is complete photos while climbing up the hill.

Jun 22, 2008

Vastu Purusha Mandala (Mandalam)

Vastu Purusha Mandala pooja Performed at my residence "SRIVARI BLISS" under the Guidance of Sri Gopala Krishna Bhat, Bangalore 0n 21st June, 2008.



Now lets get to know the concept of Vastu Purusha Mandala. The faith that Earth is a living organism, throbbing with life and energy; is fundamental to the Vastu Shastra. That living energy is symbolized as a person; he is the Vastu Purusha. The site for the proposed construction is his field; Vastu Purusha Mandala. In fact the Vastu Purusha Mandala, the site plan, is his body; and it is treated as such. His height extends from the South West corner (pitrah) to the North East corner (Agni).The Vastu Purusha Mandala also depicts the origin of the effects on the human body. All symbolisms flow from these visualizations.


Purusha means 'person' literally and refers to Universal Man. Purusha is the body of god incarnated in the ground of existence, divided within the myriad forms. He is also that fragmented body simultaneously sacrificed for the restoration of unity.


Vastu Purusha is associated with the Earth and its movable and immovable basic elements of nature, such as the earth, water, fire, air and space; just as a human being does. The Vastu purusha mandala is in some ways a development of the four pointed or cornered earth mandala having astronomical reference points. Further, the Vastu Purusha Mandala is also the cosmos in miniature; and the texts believe “what obtains in a microcosm, obtains in macrocosm too (yatha pinde thatha brahmande).”


Similarly, it believes that,"Everything is governed by one law. A human being is a microcosmos, i.e. the laws prevailing in the cosmos also operate in the minutest space of the human being." In the end, the nature, the man and his creations are all one.


“The vastu-purusha-mandala represents the manifest form of the Cosmic Being; upon which the temple is built and in whom the temple rests. The temple is situated in Him, comes from Him, and is a manifestation of Him. The vastu-purusha-mandala is both the body of the Cosmic Being and a bodily device by which those who have the requisite knowledge attain the best results in temple building.” (Stella Kramrisch,; The Hindu Temple, Vol. I)


The Vastu Purusha is visualized as lying with his face and stomach touching the ground; to suggest as if he is carrying the weight of the structure. His head is at North East (ishanya) and his legs are at the South West corner (nairutya).


The South West corner (nairutya) where the Vastu Purusha has his legs corresponds to the Muladhara chakra and denotes the earth principle. Just as the legs support the weight of the body, the base (adhistana) for the muladhara should be stable and strong. Accordingly, the South West portion of the building is the load bearing area; and should be strong enough to support heavy weights. Just as the feet are warm, the South West cell represents warmth and heat; even according to the atmospheric cycles the South West region receives comparatively more heat.



Svadhistana chakra is in the lower stomach region near the kidneys. It is related to water principle (apa).On the Vastu Purusha Mandala; it is to the South and to the West .Therefore the wet areas like bathroom etc are recommended in the south or in the west portions of the building. It is for sewerage (utsarjana).


The general guidelines are, the South West should be heavier and North East where gods dwell should not be so .The base should be heavy and the apex be lighter; just as in the case of a hill or a tree. The sensitive organs like brain, eyes, ears tounge are in the head; and the head should be lighter and secure. The head of the Vastu Purusha is in the North East and it should be kept free of pillars. Activities like worship, study are recommended in and towards east and adjoining directions.-North east and South East.


Jun 17, 2008

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA


NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA - INDIAN NATIONAL ANTHEM




Jana-Gana-Mana

(Thou Art the Ruler of All Minds)



The Indian National anthem, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The lyrics were rendered into English by Tagore himself.

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA

" Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka Jaya He
Bharat Bhagya Vidhata
Punjab Sindh Gujarat Maratha
Dravida Utkala Banga
Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga
Ucchala Jaladhi Taranga
Tubh Shubha Name Jage
Tubh Shubha Ashisha Mange
Gahe Tubh Jaya Gata
Jan Gan Mangaldayak Jay He
Bharat Bhagya Vidhata
Jaye He ! Jaye He ! Jaye He !
Jaye,Jaye,Jaye,Jaye He "

Translation of The national anthem- Jana Gana Mana In English

Thou are the ruler of the minds of all people, dispenser of India's destiny.

The name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujurat and Maratha. Of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal.

It Echoes in the hills of Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for your blessing and sing thy praise. The salvation of all peaople is thy hand, thou dispenser of India's destiny. Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

The Jana Gana Mana was composed by Shri Rabindranath Tagore and first sung at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress on December 27th, 1911. It was adopted as the National Anthem of India on 24th January, 1950 by the Constituent Assembly. The first stanza( out of five stanzas) of the song forms the National Anthem.



THE NATIONAL FLAG OF INDIA is in tricolour of deep saffron(Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal propotions.The flag is a horizontal tricolour in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white, for purity and truth; the green for faith and fertility. The design of the National Flag was adopted by India's constituent assembly on 22nd july, 1947. It's use and display are regulated by a code. The Indian flag symbolizes freedom. The late Prime Minister Pandit Nehru called it a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people.



The National emblem is a symbol of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its commitment to world peace and goodwill.

The National Emblem of India is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh State. The Lion Capital was erected in the 3rd century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Lord Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation..

It is symbolic of India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on a abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).


In the state emblem adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the center of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted.

The four lions (one hidden from view) - symbolising power, courage and confidence - rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller animals - guardians of the four directions: the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and the bull of the west.The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'


National Animal of India-THE TIGER.


The magnificent Tiger Panthera tigris (linnaeus), the national animal of India, is a rich-colored well-striped animal with a short coat. The combination of grace, strength, power has earned the tiger great respect and high esteem. Indian tigers are famous all over the world and one of the main attractions for the lovers of wild life. They are the crowning glory and the light of the Indian wild life.


Tough, muscular, majestic tigers roam about the Sunderbans of Bengal "burning bright in the darkness of the night." The natives of the forest worship the tiger as the deity that gives them honey and wax. The Sunderbans are their main habitat for their thick forests of Sunder trees. They feed on fish, cattle and sometimes human beings. The man-eaters are the most dreaded of all wild beasts. It is a common belief that a tiger does not harm anyone who has offered prayers to him. Tigers are fast runners, excellent swimmers and their eyesight is strong.


To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, which came down to just 1,827 in 1972, massive conservation program was initiated in April 1973, known as the 'Project Tiger'. This project aims to maintain a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values. Since then, the tiger population has shown a gradual increase and the census of 1989 puts the tiger population of the country at 4,334. So far, 19 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering over 29, 716 sq. km. forest area


National Bird of India-THE PEACOCK


Peacock is a large and majestic bird. It has got a long and beautiful tail. Both the peacock and the hen have crest. But the crest of hen is smaller in size. The main body of the cock is mottled brown in color. Especially, the metallic green color found on the lower neck is very attractive. Though peacocks are beautiful looking birds their calls are loud and coarse.


They move in-groups and they are normally spotted in the forests, villages and nearby fields. They are shy in nature. It feeds on lizards, snakes, grains and insects. The hen lays a maximum of five eggs, which are in pale cream color.


The significance of peacock is attached to cultures of India, Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. In Hinduism, the image of the god of thunder, rains and war, Indra, was depicted in the form of a peacock. In south India, peacock is considered as a 'vahana' or vehilce of lord Muruga. The figure of peacock is painted in various Islamic religious buildings. In Christianity, the peacock was also known as the symbol of the 'Resurrection'.


In India people believe that whenever the cock spread its tails in an ornamental fashion, it indicates that rain is imminent. In a way it is partly true. At the sight of dark clouds the bird outspreads its tail and starts dancing in rhythmic fashion. Most of the folklore including Bharatha Natyam has got special dancing poses for the peacock dance.


National Flower of India- THE LOTUS

Among the various flowers of Indian sub-continent, the flower Lotus is regarded with divinity and grace. Often, Goddesses Lakshmi and Saraswathi are associated with the flower lotus. Even Lord Siva, who wanted to escape the wrath of the Lord Saneeswaran, morphed himself into the shape of a bee and took asylum inside a lotus. Buddhists regard this flower as a sacred one.

Lotus symbolizes purity, beauty, majesty, grace, fertility, wealth, richness, knowledge and serenity. They are found in white and pink colors in general and they grow in shallow and murky waters. Some blue colored flowers are also sighted. These flowers enjoy a warm sunlight and intolerant to cold weather. Hence they cannot be seen blossoming in the winter. The floating leaves and flowers have long stems, which contains air spaces to maintain buoyancy.


The plant is having various uniqueness attached to it. Though the large leaves of the plant are floating on the surface of the water, even a drop of water is not accommodated on top of the leaves. Perhaps, they are teaching the human beings, to lead a life of non-attachment and avoid the worldly pleasures.


Depending upon the level of water in the tank, the stems will rise. In this fashion, it is guiding the human beings to rise upto the situation leading to a genuine elevation in their lives. As the world famous 'Thirukural' says,

"Vellathanayathu malar neetam manthartham
ullath thanyathu ouyarvu"


signifying, in relation with the water level of a tank, the stem will rise. In the same way, depending upon their ambitions and thoughts, human beings can elevate themselves in their life.


In Indian religious epics, references of lotus are made, in relation with eyes and feet of divine persona. For instance "Kamala Kannan" referring Lord Krishna with the contextual meaning, a person having eyes with the color of the pink lotus. Also, it is coupled with the feet of deities. "Kamala Patham" means lotus feet implying the feet of the god. "Charan Kamala Patham" implying, submit oneself in totality, at the lotus feet of the god.


National Tree of India-THE BANYAN TREE.


THE BANYAN TREE-Called the Indian fig tree( Ficus bengalensis) grow over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic & longevity, the Banyan tree is considered immortal & sacred and is an integral part of the myths and legends in India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meetings under the shade of this huge shade-giving tree.


National Fruit of India-THE MANGO



The fruit Mango,of the tree Mangifera indica, is one of the most widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. This juicy, delicious fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are hundreds of varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours etc. Mangoes, have been cultivated in India since time immemorial. The famous Indian poet Kalidasa sang its praises.King Alexander relished its taste, as did the Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang. Akbar, the Moghal emperor planted over 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhi Bagh(India).



Jun 13, 2008

Photography - Art or Science?

Read this document on Scribd: Photography - Art or Science?

Photography - a new art or yet another scientific achievement By Alex Sirota http://iosart.com/photography-art-or-science Contents • Part I - History of Photography • Camera Obscura • Reflex Mirror • Optical Glass and Lenses Part II - Technology of Photography • Light Sensitive Materials • Daguerreotypes • Roll Film • Color • Digital Photography Part III - Photography as Art • Pictorialism and Impressionism • Naturalism • Straight Photography • New Vision of the 20th Century Part IV - Photographic Techniques • Stereoscopic Photography • Infrared Photography • Panoramic Photography • Astrophotography • Pinhole Photography • • • Part I History of Photography Photography The word “photography” which is derived from the Greek words for “light” and “writing”, was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839, the year the invention of the photographic process was made public. L.J.M Daguerre, "The Louvre from the Left Bank of the Seine” daguerreotype,1839 Scientific Discoveries • The basics of optics - Camera Obscura • Optical glass • Chemical developments - light sensitive materials • Digital Photography Leonardo Da Vinci, The Magic Lantern, 1515 Camera Obscura Camera obscura - Latin, camera - chamber, obscura - dark A dark box or room with a hole in one end. If the hole is small enough, an inverted image can be seen on the opposite wall. Reflex Camera Obscura, Johannes Zahn, 1685 Camera Obscura - Ancient Times • China, Mo Ti (470-391 B.C.) • Greece, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) • • Egypt, Alhazen (965-1039 A.D.) Chinese texts • The basic optical principles of the pinhole are commented on in Chinese texts from the 5th century B.C. • Chinese writers had discovered by experiments that light travels in straight lines. • The philosopher Mo Ti (470-391 B.C.) was the first to record the formation of an inverted image with a pinhole or screen. • Mo Ti was aware that objects reflect light in all directions, and that rays from the top of an object, when passing through a hole, will produce the lower part of an image. Aristotle’s observations • Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) comments on pinhole image formation in his work “Problems”. • He asks his readers: "Why is it that an eclipse of the sun, if one looks at it through a sieve or through leaves, such as a plane-tree or other broadleaved tree, or if one joins the fingers of one hand over the fingers of the other, the rays are crescent-shaped where they reach the earth? Is it for the same reason as that when light shines through a rectangular peep-hole, it appears circular in the form of a cone?” • Aristotle found no satisfactory explanations to his observation and the problem remained unresolved until the 16th century. Alhazen’s experiments • Arabian physicist and mathematician Ibn Al-Haitam (965-1039 A.D.), also known as Alhazen, experimented with images seen through the pinhole. • He arranged three candles in a row and put a screen with a small hole between the candles and the wall. He noted that images were formed only by means of small holes and that the candle to the right made an image to the left on the wall. • From his observations he deduced the linearity of light. He also described how to view a solar eclipse using a camera obscura and was the first scientist to make this observation. Camera Obscura during the Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) describes pinhole image formation in his “Codex atlanticus” (1502) • Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), an astronomer, uses the pinhole in his darkened room to study the solar eclipse of 1544. • Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615) describes the camera obscura in his “Magiae Naturalis” (1558) • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) coins the term “Camera obscura” and invents a portable camera obscura • The Camera Obscura is being used by both artists and scientists Leonardo da Vinci’s work Leonardo da Vinci, Self-Portrait, 1512 Leonardo da Vinci’s work (contd.) • Leonardo (1452-1519), familiar with the work of Alhazen and after an extensive study of optics and human vision publishes the first detailed description of the camera obscura in “Codex Atlanticus” (1502): “In the facade of a building, or a place, or a landscape is illuminated by the sun and a small hole is drilled in the wall of a room in a building facing this, which is not directly lighted by the sun, then all objects illuminated by the sun will send their images through this aperture and will appear, upside down, on the wall facing the hole” "You can catch these pictures on a piece of white paper, which is placed vertically in the room not far from that opening. The paper should be very thin and must be viewed from the back.” • Leonardo calls the camera obscura the “oculus artificialis” “the artificial eye” Leonardo da Vinci’s work (contd.) • Leonardo’s manuscripts give detailed accounts of the camera obscura effect, observations, diagrams and explanations of it's principle. • Due to Vinci's special form of writing (written backwards called Mirror Writing), his work on the camera would not become common knowledge in the civilized world for almost three centuries - these descriptions would remain unknown of for 297 years when Professor Venturi would decipher and publish them in 1797. Gemma Frisius • Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), a Dutch astronomer, had observed an eclipse of the sun at Louvain on January 24, 1544 using pinhole in his darkened room. • He later described the process in his book “De Radio Astronomica et Geometrica” (1545) along with an illustration of the camera obscura he used. • It is thought to be the first published illustration of a camera obscura. Giovanni Battista della Porta • The Neapolitan scientist, Porta (1538-1615) gave elaborate details in physics, alchemy, astronomy, magic, cooking, perfumes, toiletry and optics in his “Magiae Naturalis” (1558) The Cover of “Magiae Naturalis” (English Translation) Giovanni Battista della Porta (contd.) • This work was a popular piece of scientific literature in the sixteenth century in which Porta gives a thorough description of a camera obscura and the images that one would see. From about this point on, the camera obscura would become a useful tool to artists. • In the second edition of his popular title, which was published in 1588, Porta includes a lens for the camera instead of a pinhole. This improved definition and allowed an image to be sharply focused on a piece of ground glass, allowing the operator to trace a picture on a sheet of paper laid over the glass. The first page of “Magiae Naturalis” (English Translation) Giovanni Battista della Porta (contd.) • Della Porta has long been regarded as the inventor of the camera obscura because his description of the device has received much publicity, as did his camera obscura shows, but he was not the true “inventor”. • In fact there exists an earlier published description of the camera obscura - a translation of Vitruvius's “Treatise On Architecture” (1521) by Caesare Caesariano (1483-1543). • It is said that Della Porta made a huge "camera" in which he seated his guests, having arranged for a group of actors to perform outside so that the visitors could observe the images on the wall. The story goes, however, that the sight of up-side down performing images was too much for the visitors; they panicked and fled, and Battista was later brought to court on a charge of sorcery! Johannes Kepler • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), scholar and astronomer wrote about observing the sun using a room camera similar to the one described by Porta. Kepler described this event in his first published work on astronomy, “Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena” (1604). The first occurrence of the name "camera obscura" is found in this work. • Kepler's portable camera obscura (tent) is described in a paper “Reliquiae Wottonianae” (1651). This is one of the earliest English language descriptions given to the camera obscura. Portable 'Tent' Camera Obscura, Johannes Kepler Camera Obscura as an Artistic Aid • Since Giovanni Battista della Porta popularized the camera obscura in 1558 through his “Magiae Naturalis” book, it became increasingly popular among both artists and amateur painters. • Camera obscuras as drawing aids were soon found in many shapes and sizes. • When looking through the lens of a camera obscura, the view presented is actually reflected through the mirrors onto the paper or cloth and allows the artist to draw by tracing the outline. Camera Obscura as an Artistic Aid (contd.) • Its strength as an aid to drawing resides in its ability to distil onto a flat surface the confused visual information which strikes the eye. It was much used by Dutch still-life and by topographical painters. Eminent practitioners include the Dutch genre painter Vermeer in the 17th century and the Veduta painter Canaletto in the 18th century. Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance, 1664 Reflex mirror and other improvements • As remarkable as the instruments were, they didn't fully satisfy the needs of artists. While canvas painting is a vertical pursuit, many artists preferred to sketch a scene on a laptop pad. In 1676, Johann Christoph Sturm, a professor of mathematics at Altdorf University in Germany, introduced a reflex mirror. Mounted at a 45 degree angle from the lens, the mirror projected the image to a screen above. This elegant configuration is at the core of modern single lens reflex cameras. Design of a modern single lens reflex camera Reflex mirror and other improvements (contd.) • In 1685, Johann Zahn, a monk from Wurzburg, solved the final piece in the optical puzzle. Improving upon Sturm's design, he introduced lenses of longer and shorter focal lengths. Scenes as wide as a landscape or as close as a portrait could be viewed with a simple change of lens. Page from “Oculus”, Johann Zahn, 1685 Optical Glass • Nearly all the technological knowledge needed to manufacture optical glass was present since the ancient times. • Glass occurs in Egypt and Babylon in 2600 B.C., bottles were made 14th - 15th century B.C., and large scale production in Egypt dates from the 6th century B.C. • Glass blowing is discovered at Sidon in the first century and clear glass is made at Alexandria at about the same time. In Roman times glassworks are established in Italy, Spain, and the Rineland. • In the 13th century Venice again discovers how to make clear glass and established a virtual monopoly. Lenses • Lenses for eyeglasses are first mass-produced in Venice in about 1275. Porta gives the first description of the process in “Magiae Naturalis” (1588), which differs little in principal from that generally used up to 1915. • Porta uses the term pilae vitreae to designate the cylinders of glass from which sections are sliced with a diamond cutter and are sent from Germany to Venice for polishing. This is the term (hollow balls, filled with water) used by to describe magnifiers in antiquity. Part II Technology of Photography Light Sensitive Materials • After the camera obscura had been invented and it’s use widely popularized, many dreamt of capturing the images obtained by the camera obscura permanently. • For hundreds of years before photography was invented, people had been aware that some colors are bleached in the sun, but they had made little distinction between heat, air and light. Camera Obscura, Georg Friedrich Brander (1713 - 1785), 1769 Light Sensitive Materials (contd.) • In 1727, Johann Heinrich Schulze (1687-1744), a German scientist found that silver salts darkened when exposed to sunlight and published results that distinguished between the action of light and heat upon silver salts. • Even after this discovery, a method was needed to halt the chemical reaction so the image wouldn’t darken completely. A Simplified Schematic Representation of the Silver Halide Process The first permanent picture • Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833), a French inventor, was experimenting with camera obscura and silver chloride. • In 1826, he turned to bitumen of Judea, a kind of asphalt that hardened when exposed to light. • Niepce dissolved the bitumen in lavender oil and coated a sheet of pewter with the mixture. • He placed the sheet in the camera and exposed it for eight hours aimed through an open window at his courtyard. • The light forming the image on the plate hardened the bitumen in bright areas and left it soft and soluble in the dark areas. The first permanent picture (contd.) • Niepce then washed the plate with lavender oil, which removed the still-soft bitumen that hadn’t been struck by light, leaving a permanent image. • Niepce named the process heliography - Greek, helios - “sun”, graphos - “drawing”. View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, 1826 Daguerreotypes • News of Niepce’s work had reached another Frenchman, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (1787-1851) who had been experimenting to capture camera obscura images • In 1829 Niepce and Daguerre became partners, a partnership which lasted until Niepce’s death in 1833. • Daguerre perfected the process, reducing the exposure time from eight hours to half an hour. He found that an image could be made permanent by immersing it in salt. • In 1839 he announced the new process which he named “daguerreotype” before the French Academy. Daguerreotypes (contd.) • A French newspaper praised the process: “What fineness in the strokes! What knowledge of chiaroscuro! What delicacy! What exquisite finish!… How admirably are the foreshortenings given: this is Nature itself!” Still Life in Studio, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, 1837 The earliest known daguerreotype Daguerreotypes (contd.) • Almost immediately after the announcement, hundreds of daguerreotype studios were opened to provide “Sun Drawn Miniatures” to the public. • By 1853 an estimated three million daguerreotypes per year were produced in the United States alone. Daguerreotype of Couple Holding Daguerreotype, Unknown Artist, 1850 Daguerreotypes (contd.) Emily Dickinson at 17, Unknown Artist, 1847 Following achievements • Daguerreotypes had one major drawback, there was no way of producing copies of the original plate. • In June 1940, an English amateur scientist Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) announced a technique which became the basis of modern photography. He called it "calotype" (Greek for "beautiful picture"). The Open Door, William Henry Fox Talbot, 1843 Following achievements (contd.) • The great advantage of Talbot's method was that the process involved both a negative and a positive. The negative image, the calotype, was repeatable indefinitely in a positive print, finally allowing multiple prints. • By 1880, a convenient “dry plate” process was developed, allowing very fast development and opening the field to the general public. Xie Kitchin with Umbrella, Lewis Carroll, 1875 Roll Film • Much of the credit for popularizing photography goes to George Eastman (1854-1932). He began as a bank clerk in Rochester, NY, and built his Eastman Kodak Company into a great enterprise it is today. • In 1884 Eastman invented the equipment to mass produce roll film. “Eastnman’s American Film” was a roll of paper coated with thin gelatin emulsion. • Roll film made possible a new kind of camera - inexpensive, light and simple - that made everyone a potential photographer. In the early years of the company, film base was manufactured and coated on long glass tables. Royal Gold Kodak film, 1994 Kodak Camera • Kodak camera was introduced in 1888. Their slogan was “You push the button, we do the rest”. • The Kodak camera became an international sensation almost overnight. • A new photographic era, of simple light cameras and easy to handle roll film had begun. The first Kodak camera, 1888 Kodak camera advertisement, 1890 Kodak Camera (contd.) George Eastman with a Kodak camera, Fredrick Church, 1890 Color - First Steps • One of the first successes in color photography was demonstrated in 1861 by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879). • Maxwell devised a way to recreate the colors of a tartan ribbon. He had three negatives of the ribbon made, each through a different color filter - red, green and blue. • Positive black and white transparencies were made of the three negatives. While projected superimposed though three color filters like those on the camera, the three positives produced an image of the ribbon in it’s original colors. Maxwell’s tartan ribbon • This technique is called “additive color mixing”. Colors are produced by adding together varying amounts of red, green and blue. Subtractive Color Mixing • In 1869, Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) and Charles Cros (1842-1888), two Frenchman working independently announced their research on subtractive color mixing. • In subtractive mixing, which is the basis for modern color photography, colors are created by combining cyan, magenta and yellow dyes (the complements of red, green and blue). The dyes are subtract colors from “white” light that contains all colors. Louis Ducos du Hauron Leaves and Flower Petals, 1869 Commercial Color Photography • The first commercially successful color process was developed by Antoine and Louis Lumiere, two French brothers, in 1907. It was an additive process called “Autochrome”. Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud (1866-1951), Autochrome, Early 20th century. Autochrome • A glass plate was covered with tiny grains of potato starch dyed red-orange, green and violet in a layer only one starch grain thick. • Then a light sensitive emulsion was added. Light struck the emulsion after passing through the colored grains. The emulsion behind each grain was exposed by light from the scene that was the same color as that grain. • The result was a full color transparency. Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud, Autochrome, Early 20th century. Autochrome (contd.) Autochrome landscape of Madeira by Miss Sarah Angelina Acland, 1908-15 Kodachrome • A subtractive color process called kodachrome made color photography practical. • It was perfected by Leopold Mannes (1899-1964) and Leopold Godowsky (1900-1983), two musicians and amateur photographic researchers. • Their collaboration with Eastman Kodak scientists led to the introduction of Kodachrome in 1935. Kodachrome was a single sheet of film coated with three layers of emulsion, each sensitive to one primary color (red, green and blue). A single exposure produced a color image. 2000 1935 Kodachrome (contd.) • Luis Marden, a great photographer working for the National Geographic Society was one of the first pioneers of the revolutionary new film. Luis Marden Career Collage, Sarah Leen Kodachrome (contd.) Party-mask with Shells, Paul Outerbridge, 1936 Digital Photography • In the mid 1970s, Kodak and other companies began investigating filmless technologies that could capture images with solid state circuitry • In 1986, Kodak succeeded in creating a sensor that could record 1.4 million picture elements, or megapixels. • In the 1990s the first digital cameras appeared for commercial use. KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 760 Digital Camera, 6 million pixels, 2001 Digital Photography (contd.) • The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how they capture the image. • Instead of film, digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor, usually a charge-couple device (CCD). • On the surface of each of these fingernail-sized silicon chips is a grid containing hundreds of thousands or millions of photosensitive diodes called photosites, photoelements, or pixels. Each photosite captures a single pixel in the photo-graph to be. An image sensor sits against a background enlargement of its square pixels, each capable of capturing one pixel in the final image Part III Photography as Art Photography as Art • Almost from the moment of its birth, photography began staking out claims in areas that had long been reserved for painting. • Some artists refused to accept photography as an art form. In 1862 a group of French artists formally protested that photography was a soulless, mechanical process, “never resulting in works which could ever be compared with those works which are the fruits of intelligence and the study of art” • On the other hand, the invention of the photography caused considerable concern to many artists, who saw their means of livelihood coming to an end. Some even claimed that painting was dead. • Many artists turned to photography, while some used photography as an artistic aid. Pictorialism • From 1850s through the 1870s there was a rage for illustrative photographs similar to a storytelling style of painting popular at the time. • The most famous and commercially the most successful of those intending to elevate photography to an art was Henry Peach Robinson. Fading away, Henry Peach Robinson, 1858 Pictorialism (contd.) • Robinson produced many illustrative and allegorical composite photographs, and became a leader of a so called “High Art” movement in 19th century photography, which advocated beauty and artistic effect no matter how it was obtained. A Holiday in the Wood, Henry Peach Robinson, 1860 Pictorialism (contd.) • Pictorialism is a style of photography in which the actual scene depicted is of less importance than the artistic quality of the image. Pictorialists would be more concerned with the aesthetics and, sometimes, the emotional impact of the image, rather than what actually was in front of their camera. The Two Ways of Life, Oscar Rejlander, 1857 Pictorialism and Impressionism • Because pictorialism was seen as artistic photography, current styles of art were reflected in the works of pictorialists. • This impressionist movement developed from naturalistic painting, particularly landscape, a central feature of 19th Century art. • In May 1874 a group of French artists began to exhibit impressionistic photographs at the studio in Paris. The group continued in being for the next twelve years, and work was exhibited by, among others, Cezanne and Gaugin. Robert Demachy (1859-1936), Untitled, 1906 Pictorialism and Impressionism (contd.) • Another photographer who was influenced by the impressionists was George Davidson, who contended that a sharp photograph was not always to be striven for. In "The Onion field" (1889) he used rough-surfaced paper and a softfocus technique. The Onion Field, George Davidson, 1889 Naturalism • The leader of the naturalistic movement in photography, which emerged in 1880s, was Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) • Emerson's main claim was that one should treat photography as a legitimate art in its own right, rather than seek to imitate other art forms; imitation was not needed - it could confer its own legitimacy without it. • Emerson claimed that true photographic art was possible only through exploiting the camera’s ability to capture reality in a direct way. • The rules of naturalism were: no “faking” by means of lighting, posing, costumes or props; no retouching. A so called “scientific focusing” technique was promoted, which imitated the way the eye perceives a scene: sharply focused on the main subject, with the foreground and the background slightly out of focus. Naturalism (contd.) Gathering Water Lilies, Peter Henry Emerson, 1885 Naturalism (contd.) • Although Emerson later became convinced that photography was not an art form at all but only “a handmaiden to science and art”, his earlier ideas had already influenced a new generation of photographers who no longer felt the need to imitate painting but began to explore photography as an art form of its own right. Ricking the Reed, Peter Henry Emerson, 1885 Naturalism (contd.) A Sea of Steps, Frederick H. Evans, 1903 Straight Photography • In the beginning of the 20th century, with the pictorialism being as strong as ever, a movement was forming to return to the direct and unmanipulated photography, which characterized much of the 19th century imagery. • Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946), an American photographer, was the leader and catalyst for photography as an art form. Two Towers, New York, Alfred Stieglitz, 1911 Straight Photography (contd.) • In his magazine “Camera Work”, Stieglitz published photographic criticism and works whose only requirement was that they would be worthy of the word “art”. • Stieglitz eventually forced museums and art critics to grant photography a place besides the other arts. The Hand of Man, Alfred Stieglitz, 1902 Straight Photography (contd.) • While first he belonged to the impressionistic movement, he later became a strong advocate of a sharply realistic, “straight photography”. City of Ambition, Alfred Stieglitz, 1910 Straight Photography (contd.) • Paul Strand represented a powerful new approach to photography as an art form. He believed that “objectivity is of the very essence of photography...” Paul Strand, White Fence, 1916 Straight Photography (contd.) Blind, Paul Strand, 1916 Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut, Paul Strand, 1916 City Hall Park, New York, Paul Strand, 1915 Straight Photography (contd.) • Straight photography dominated photography as an art form from the 1930s to the 1950s. • Many famous photographers, such as Ansel Adams, Paul Caponigro and Imogen Cunningham have used the straight approach. Edward Weston, Pepper No. 30, 1930 New Vision of the 20th Century • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946), a Hungarian artist attempted to find new ways of seeing the world and experimented with radical uses of photographic materials in an attempt to replace 19th century pictorialist conventions with a “new vision” compatible with modern life. Through the fence, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1927 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy explored many ways of expanding photographic vision, through photograms, photomontage, the Sabattier effect (often called solarization), unusual angles, optical distorsions and multiple exposures. Chairs at Margate, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1935 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Moholy felt that these effects “if properly used, help to create a more complex and imaginary language of photography” Photogram, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1939 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Another artist exploring new art forms was Man Ray (18901976), an American living in Paris. Like Moholy, he used many techniques in his work. Solarization, Man Ray, 1929 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) Juliet in Mud Mask, Man Ray, 1945 Acceptance of Photography as an Art Form • Since the 1950s, photography has gained a wide acceptance as an art form throughout the world. • Photography has become a part of the college and art school curriculum. • Art museums have devoted considerable attention to photography. • Art galleries started to sell photographs. • Magazines such as Artforus and Art in America began to regularly publish photographs and essays about photography. A Selection of Photographs Eleanor, Harry Callahan, 1947 The Soul, Drtikol Frantisek, 1930 The Soul The Serra Pe lada Goldm ine Sebastiao Salgado, The Serra Pelada Goldmine, Brazil 1986 Fox Games Fox Games, Sandy Skoglund, 1989 Sula Bassana Sula Bassana, Manuel Vilarino, 1985 I + cat I + cat, Wanda Wulz, 1932 Ansel Adams, The Tetons and the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming 1942 The Tetons and the Snake River Nude on Sand Nude on Sand, Edward Weston, 1936 John Lennon and Yoko Ono John Lennon and Yoko Ono, New York City, December 8, 1980 Annie Leibovitz Part IV Photographic Techniques Alternative Photographic Techniques • Photography has become an important part of our life. We see photographs everywhere - in magazines, books, on billboards and on the internet. We make photographs ourselves. • But there’s more to photography than that. Like in every other art form, imagination is the only limit. • In the following sections I will describe the less known photographic techniques: • Stereoscopic (3D) • Infrared • Panoramic • Astrophotography • Pinhole Stereoscopic Photography • Stereoscopic, or 3D photography, works because it is able to recreate the illusion of depth. Human eyes are set some distance apart, so each eye sees an image slightly differently. If one takes two separate photographs that same distance apart, with a suitable viewer it is possible to recreate that illusion of depth. • Binocular drawings were made by Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615), which clearly indicated his understanding of binocular vision. • In 1613 the Jesuit Francois d'Aguillion (1567-1617), in his treatise, coined the word "stereoscopique" Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • The first stereoscope viewer was created in 1833 by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), a British inventor. Because photography was unknown at the time, drawings were used. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • In 1849 Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), an English scholar, invented a box shaped viewer. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • The stereoscope took off in a big way when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert observed one at the exhibition at the Crystal Palace, and Brewster presented her with a stereoscope. • A new industry and form of entertainment was created, it is estimated that by the mid eighteen-fifties over a million homes owned a stereoscope. Mirror Lake, Watkins' and Clouds' Rest, Mts. and Reflections. Photographer: E. & H. T. Anthony & Co. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • Stereo pictures are taken by means of a camera with two lenses. This provides two separate pictures 6 cm apart, about the distance between the eyes. Although the pictures appear the same, they are not. When looked at in a viewer, which has prismatic lenses, your eyes will blend the two views into one and the brain perceives it in three dimensions the same as normal vision. Wet Plate Stereo camera, 1860 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • From 1850 until World War I, the stereoscope allowed our forefathers to visit every corner of the world. It provides us with a three dimensional historical record of those 70 years. A Typical Tobacco Plantation, Province of Havana, Cuba Strohmeyer & Wyman, 1899 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Looking into the Lake of Fire, Crater of Volcano Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands Strohmeyer & Wyman, 1896 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Railroad Battery Before Petersburg, The War for the Union 1861-1865 neg. 1860s; print 1890s Publisher: Taylor & Huntington Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) View on Kansas River, near Wyandotte, Kansas. Alexander Gardner, 1867 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) French cavalry horses swimming river in northern France, World War I Keystone View Co. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Pyramid Rocks, Echo Canyon Charles Weitfle, 1878 Infrared Photography • Infrared film is sensitive to light in the infrared spectrum and is not visible to the human eye. • The results is that everything looks different than it normally would; foliage is white, skies are black and the photo takes on an eerie and dramatic look. • These film special characteristics which can be exploited for artistic purposes. Windmill on Faial, Andy Finney, 1997 The History of Infrared Photography • Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), a German-born astronomer was searching for suitable glass for colored filters to be fitted on his telescope. • He needed a color that would transmit a maximum of light and a minimum of heat. The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • Using a glass prism to refract light from the sun into its component colors, he moved thermometers through the spectrum. The temperatures increased as the thermometers were moved from violet to red and reached a maximum in the dark region beyond the red end of the visible spectrum. • The Royal Society of London was notified of this discovery in 1800. In his writings, Herschel referred to this phenomenon as “invisible light”. Herschel's Prism and Mirror c1800 The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • In the following years, experiments on the subject were conducted by Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), a German scientist and Sir John Herschel, son of Sir William. • It was Sir William Abney, president of The Royal Astronomical Society and of The Physical Society of London, who devised the earliest method of direct photography far into the infrared region. Abney published a chart of the infrared region of the solar spectrum, and is credited with first using the term "infrared," in 1880. • After years of further experiments, in 1904, Ben Homelike, an Austrian chemist, discovered the first practical sensitizer for all visible red, pinacyanol. Immediately after the invention of pinacyanol came dicyanide, the first infrared sensitizer. The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • First commercial infra-red film became available around 1931. • Its earliest applications were primarily for scientific purposes; as an investigative tool in criminology, in ophthalmology and other medical fields, in the exploration of space, and in aerial survey work. Varadero, Cuba - Coconut Palm, Andy Finney The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • Infrared film has also been employed to create special effects in cinema, and to take photographs in the dark without detectable flash. • In recent years, infrared film has gained an ever-widening audience as its accessibility has increased. Hermitage of St John of the Desert, Andy Finney The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) Wandsworth Park, Andy Finney Panoramic Photography • A panorama is an unusually wide picture that shows at least as much width-ways as the eye is capable of seeing. Tower of London, James Rigg, 1997 Panoramic Photography (contd.) • The most common techniques in panoramic photography are "scanning" and "fixed lens". • With the scanning technique the lens is rotating around its rear nodal point (the optical point from which the focal length is measured) opposite a curved film plane. • This method gives a very wide angle of view, similar to that of the fisheye lens, but without the extreme distortion of lines within the image. • In a fixed lens panoramic camera, a wide view angle is achieved optically by the lens. Noblex scanning camera Art Panorama fixed lens panoramic camera The History of Panoramic Photography • Shortly after the invention of photography, the desire to show overviews of cities and landscapes prompted photographers to create panoramas. • The earliest panoramas were made by placing two or more daguerreotype plates side-by-side. View from the top of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., George Barnard, 1864 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) • In the late nineteenth century, cameras were manufactured specifically for producing panoramas. These cameras were either swing-lens cameras, where the lens rotated while the film remained stationary, or 360-degree rotation cameras, where both the camera and the film rotated. Wonder Panoramic camera , Manufacturer: Rudolph Stirn, 1890 C.P. Stirn's patent "The Wonder" Panoramic Camera, covering up to 360°, for up to five exposures on transparent roll film The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) • The first mass-produced American panoramic camera, the Al- Vista, was introduced in 1898. • The following year Eastman Kodak introduced the #4 Kodak Panoram panoramic camera that proved popular with amateur photographers. • The panoramic format has never seized to evolve since and is very popular with contemporary photographers. The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Panorama of Jerusalem, view from the Mount of Olives, 186? The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Davenport, IA, 2nd & Harrison Sts.; F.J. Bandholtz, 1907 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Panoramic landscape along the Elbe, Josef Sudek, around 1956 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Vultures Dale, Province of Chubut. Argentina, Alberto Gandsas Astrophotography • The universe is full of spectacular things. What can be seen with the naked eye is a small fraction of those wonders. • Astrophotography is about capturing parts of our universe with a camera. Corona - Total Solar Eclipse, Andreas Gada and Jerry Lodriguss The History of Astrophotography • Before the invention of photography observers sat at telescopes and sketched what they saw. • Combining the optics of a telescope with a specially constructed camera to make the first photographic plates took place around the 1840s. • By the turn of the 1900s astronomers turned their attention to making telescopes specifically for photography and not for observing. • This in turn led to even better imaging of galaxies and star clusters as well as better spectral images for deeper scientific analysis. The History of Astrophotography (contd.) • During the middle of the 1900s telescopes were manufactured for consumers leading to an explosion in the amateur astronomical community. • Color film that works well with the pursuit of astrophotography appeared on the market during the early 1980s and quickly evolved into a fantastic tool for capturing beautiful color images of space. M31 - The Great Galaxy in Andromeda, Jerry Lodriguss The History of Astrophotography (contd.) • Today, astrophotography is a science and an art form. The images of the heavens captured by amateur astronomers at the dawn of the 2000s truly would astound astronomers of just 25 years previous. B33 - The Horsehead Nebula, Jerry Lodriguss Pinhole Photography • Pinhole photography is lensless photography. A tiny hole replaces the lens. Light passes through the hole; an image is formed in the camera. • Basically a pinhole camera is a box, with a tiny hole in one end and film or photographic paper in the other. Tom Baril, 1998 Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Pinhole cameras are used for fun, for art and for science. • Pinhole images are softer - less sharp - than pictures made with a lens. The images have nearly infinite depth of field. Wide angle images remain absolutely rectilinear. On the other hand, pinhole images suffer from greater chromatic aberration than pictures made with a simple lens, and they tolerate little enlargement. From the window series, Robert Mann Pinhole Photography (contd.) Paris, Ilan Wolf, 1998 The History of Pinhole Photography • Sir David Brewster, a Scottish scientist, was one of the first to make pinhole photographs, in the 1850s. He also coined the very word "pinhole”. • By the late 1880s the Impressionist movement in painting was a certain influence on photography. Different schools or tendencies developed in photography. • The "old school" believed in sharp focus and good lenses; the "new school", the "pictorialists", tried to achieve the atmospheric qualities of paintings. Some of the pictorialists experimented with pinhole photography. "Expeditions" , Ruth Thorne-Thomsen, 1979 The History of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Pinhole photography became popular in the 1890s. Commercial pinhole cameras were sold in Europe, the United States and in Japan. 4000 pinhole cameras ("Photomnibuses") were sold in London alone in 1892. • The cameras seem to have had the same status as disposable cameras today - none of the "Photomnibuses" have been preserved for posterity in camera collections. • Mass production of cameras and "new realism" in the 20th century soon left little space for pinhole photography. • By the 1930s the technique was hardly remembered, or only used in teaching. Eastman Kodak Pinhole Camera 1930 The Revival of Pinhole Photography • In the mid-1960s several artists, unaware of each other, began experimenting with the pinhole technique - Paolo Gioli in Italy, Gottfried Jager in Germany, David Lebe, Franco Salmoiraghi, Wiley Sanderson and Eric Renner in the USA. • In 1971 The Time-Life Books published The Art of Photography in the well-known Life Library of Photography and included one of Eric Renner's panoramic pinhole images. Lago Massiore, North Italy, Peter Olpe, 1978 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • The June 1975 issue of Popular Photography published the article "Pinholes for the People", based on Phil Simkin's monthlong project with 15,000 hand-assembled and preloaded pinhole cameras in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. People came into the museum, picked up a camera, made an exposure. The images, developed in a public darkroom in the museum, were continually displayed in the museum Brooklyn Bridge, Dona McAdams, 1983 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • In the 1970s pinhole photography gained increasing popularity. A number of articles and some books were published, but the critics tended to ignore pinhole photography in art. Beth III, Mimbres Hot Springs Ranch, Nancy Spencer, 1995 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • In 1985 Lauren Smith published The Visionary Pinhole, the first broad documentation of the diversity of pinhole photography. • The first national exhibition of pinhole photography in the USA was organized by Willie Anne Wright, at the The Institute of Contemporary Art of the Virginia Museum in 1982. In 1988 the first international exhibition, "Through a Pinhole Darkly", was organized by the Fine Arts Museum of Long Island. B.B. and Me, David Lebe, 1974 hand colored pinhole photograph from 4 pinhole camera The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Large number of pinhole artists became active in the 1980s. • At least six commercial pinhole cameras were manufactured in the 1980s. • Today, thousands of pinhole artists are active throughout the world. Sieb, Jurgen Konigs, 1990 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) London, Ilan Wolf, 1991 The End... Bibliography • A New History of Photography, edited by Michel Frizot • Photography, Barbara London and John Upton • A History of Photography, Robert Leggat http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/ • Pinhole Photography, Jon Grepstad http://home.online.no/~gjon/pinhole.htm • The Complete History of Cinematography http://www.precinemahistory.net/ • Reclaiming Technology, Jno Cook http://jnocook.net/reclaim/ • Invisible Light, Infrared Photography by Andy Finney http://www.atsf.co.uk/ilight/ Images • Title page: Harold Edgerton, Milk Drop Coronet, 1957 • Final Page: View of the Earth from the Command Module Columbia. 20 July 1969. • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/ • George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film http://www.geh.org/ • Niepce Museum of Photography http://www.museeniepce.com/ • Explore Art at the Getty http://www.getty.edu/ • The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/ • Masters of Photography http://www.masters-of-photography.com/ Images (contd.) • California Heritage Collection http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/CalHeritage/ • Taking the Long View, Panoramic Photographs Collection http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pnhtml/pnhome.html • Panoramic landscape photography of Argentina http://www.gandsas.com/ • Catching the Light - Astrophotography http://www.astropix.com/ • Pinhole Resource Online http://www.pinholeresource.com/

Photography Posing Tips & Techniques

Read this document on Scribd: Photography Posing Tips & Techniques

How to Achieve the Best Poses from Your Photographed Subjects Photography As An Art Photography becomes an art when one captures the true essence of a subject in its environment. Many individuals grasp photography’s artistic composure when they encounter a photograph, whereby the subject influences an emotional or empathetic response. The elements for composing this type of art require the photographer to adhere to some rather basic and advanced concepts of posing the subject How the Subject’s Pose Influences the Quality of the Photograph An artistic photograph invokes a sense of movement within the audience. This movement comes in the form of an emotional response, such as passion, sympathy or happiness. The feeling, itself, constructs a relationship between the artist and the audience, which extends through nonverbal communication. Famous artist dedicate the foundation of this relationship as to how the subject’s composure influences the audience’s response. Humans relate to each other through the form of pictographic, verbal nonverbal and written communication. In some instances, the subject of a photograph speaks to the audience through body language as form of nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions, poised movement, gestures or position within the surrounding environment. As an exercise, review the individual in the photographs below: Can you see how the subject’s poise in the first photograph influences a sense of openness, welcoming and fulfillment towards the audience? When first viewing the photograph, was it easy to put yourself in the subject’s shoes and feel the enormity of the environment in comparison to a lone human being in the midst of it all? The Importance of Learning How to Pose the Subject The information included within the following paragraphs will detail how the subject’s pose communicates certain messages to the audience through kinesics behaviors, more commonly known as a form of nonverbal communication. The importance of bodily components detailed in this article doesn’t merely form rudimentary arrangement guidelines. Rather, we discuss the rules of logically ordering of the body in the process of posing a subject. Adhering to the rules detailed in any art form can seem restrictive at first but remember, a solid foundation paves way for personalized creativity to be appreciated by your peers, the general public and you. How the Body Affects Composition Start with the actual body of the subject, as this will be the most viewed and dominant element of the photograph. Positioning the body towards the front will produce a sense of ordinary posture, possibly strength and affirmation of the subject’s beliefs. Positioning the body in a profile may project the subject has become preoccupied with their environment or faces away from your audience in a less than welcoming sense. The body’s position acts as the foundation of which to build the rest of the subject’s message to the audience through nonverbal communication. How the Legs Affect Composition After configuring a posing position for the body, consider the position of the legs. The position of the legs should reinforce the meaning expressed by the body. Crossed legs often convey a message of insecurity, secrecy or proper posture for a lady. Dangling legs project a sense of freedom or helplessness. Use the position of the legs to affirm the viewer’s belief about the photograph as seen from the body’s configured pose. It is important to reaffirm nonverbal communication messages with the legs in order to avoid sending mixed signals to the audience. If your subject’s body faces towards the camera in a head on view, make sure the legs strengthen a message of confidence, openness or security of self by composing the subject without crossing of the legs as this can send a message of hostility or confrontation. How the Arms Affect Composition Next, focus on where you want your subject’s arms to be. The arms will serve as an exaggerating component of the message being relayed through the body, head, and facial expressions. Configuring the subject’s hands to form a gesture of sorts should influence the overall message being conveyed through other body formations. The position of the hands and fingers detail more about how the person is actually feeling than any other element of the body. Crossed arms relay a sense of hostility, thought or closed off mindset. Open and raised arms indicate a sense of freedom, confidence or empowerment. While a relaxed composition of the hands resting on the legs, another subject’s shoulders or comfortably in someone’s pockets indicates the subject is at ease with their surroundings. How the Head Affects Composition Positioning the head comes after all other body parts because it should encompass the entire body’s message and only strengthen every other relayed sense of the subject. Portrait photography often portrays the subject’s head in a tilted stance. Tilting of the head relays a message to the audience of sympathy, honesty and earnest intentions. Do not arrange the subject’s head towards the ground unless you’re trying to indicate the person has a rather shy demeanor or has become ashamed of their actions in the surrounding environment. Most of your audience will not combine a strong posture, open stance of the legs, raised arms and a lower head as a positive composition. The Number of Subjects in a Photograph Once you’ve got a good idea of how each segment above should guide the final message of the photograph, you’ll need to consider how many subject’s will need to be guided in composition. The number of people within a photograph will require you to adjust the camera’s aperture to accommodate the desired depth of field. The depth of friend encompasses the distance before and after the occurrence of the subject to compile focusing capabilities. Get familiar with the camera’s aperture and depth of field capabilities by practicing on a non-human subject. Take photographs at different distances, in different amounts of light and record the changed settings in your mind or on the photograph. How to Pose An Individual Portrait photo shoots allow the photographer to practice the rules of posing the body in a more relaxed environment. For one, you’re only working with one subject, thus it becomes easier to the guide the subject’s posture and composition to achieve a desired nonverbal message in the final photograph. Photographers often use the following guidelines for posing an individual: 1. Position the body at a 90-degree angle towards the camera. Positioning the body towards but slightly away from the front view of the camera relays a sense of modesty and openness of the subject. For some subject’s it creates a slimming effect by putting proportions in a less than noticeable comparison. 2. Ask the subject to place one foot behind the other as a way to distribute the body’s weight evenly. The subject should place most of their weight on the back foot and portray a sense of relaxation. level and should not be a dominant feature in individual photographs. Although, if the subject is sitting for the photograph, you may want to place the arms and hands above one another on a flat surface. The wrist should be slightly turned up and the hands in a relaxed state. 3. The hands should be positioned at a relaxing point below the waist 4. The individual’s head should be place at a slight angle in order to emphasize the openness and casualty of the body being turned at 90 degrees towards the camera. Do not allow the subject to complete a straight pose, as this will negate the relaxed message being portrayed in the rest of the body’s composure. Make sure the subject’s eyes face towards the camera and get the person to make a meaningful giggle for capturing a natural smile, as opposed to a forced smile, which may throw the rest of the natural feel of the portrait off balance. How to Pose a Couple Once you’ve familiarized yourself with the rules of posing the subject through demonstration on an individual subject, you may begin exploring photographing a couple. The more subjects involved in a photograph the more instances of body composition you will need to address. However, you’ll find the rules becoming almost a second nature once you’ve had adequate practice on an individual. Thus, we won’t focus so much on the fundamental rules for composing the body, as we will combine two single interactions for one final message in the photograph. 1. Consider the nature of the couple. Are they family members, close friends or lovers? The 90 degree angled formation may be used with the body’s here, as well, but with two subject’s instead of one, you might want to single file each person in a common direction. Opposing the bodies will relay a final nonverbal message of the two as “standing off” from one another. Instead, single file portrays a sense of similar movement, ideals and influences their bond through this common direction. 2. A couple’s legs should be positioned in the same manner of their body’s direction. The legs should be uncrossed and tightly composed to display a sense of modesty. Often times, the final photograph will only include the subject’s formation above the waist, so merely affirm their legs are uncrossed and are facing similar directions to avoid an uneven balancing of the body’s weight in the final photograph. 3. A coupled photograph makes more of the arm’s position in the final photograph than an individual’s guideline. Here, the arms have the opportunity to influence the sense of closeness between the coupled pair. If the subject’s are stacked in a familial photo shoot, you may rest the higher subject’s open palm on the lower subject’s shoulder. This will influence a sense of compassion in the final photograph. A paired couple of a friendship nature may have their arms and hands placed in front of their body, on an equal parallel to one another. This will indicate a sense of common ground between the two and reaffirm the belief of common direction between the individuals. 4. The couple’s placement of the head should be much the same as their body’s composition. A friendly photograph may require the couple’s heads be turned the same direction and focused on a point not directly in the camera’s focus field. A coupled family portrait should focus the heads in much a similar demeanor. How to Pose 3-5 Subjects You should’ve worked on solidifying your understanding of the body’s position in a photograph while working with the coupled pairs. The rules and guidelines thereof should almost be applied subconsciously before tackling a group pose for 3-5 subjects. We will omit the discussion of composing body parts throughout our guideline encompassing group photos. Instead, we will focus more on variability, atmospheric conditions and guiding the group’s attention. Most group-related portraits require the photographer to capture a profound image of the individuals combined as one. Some jobs require allow the subjects to be displayed a bit more candidly than others. Either way, the environment surrounding a group photo becomes more important because you must encompass part of this background with the group of people. You’ll want to make sure the surrounding environment isn’t too dark or lighted to affect the final outcome of the photograph. Also, you’ll want to place the group’s angled position towards the source of incoming light to portray natural highlight and undertone capabilities. With a group of people, you can construct their composition of body’s in more ways than with an individual or couple. For instance, you may have one person standing behind 3 others and enclosing the group of people with his or her arms. Another instance, you may have one subject in a lying position in front of the rest of the people from the group. You’ll want to change the position of the subject’s to locate the finest point of symmetry among the group’s members. How to Pose 5-10 Subjects Posing 5-10 subjects relates to posing 3-5 subject’s guidelines in much the same way, only you’re dealing with larger amounts of people. You may not be able to change the position of the individual’s quite as much as with a smaller group. Instead, you’ll want to try and move the group as a whole. For instance, changing their body formation to a more obtuse portrayal in order to display each individual’s personal figures. Also, you as an individual capturing the group in a photograph should do some moving instead of the group. See if you can’t include the group of people in the photograph from multiple angles, such as below eye level, above eye level, 30-degree angles to the left or right and other various positions. Be aware of the natural source of light when changing positions as any sense of glare can wash out the final appearance of the photograph. You’ll want to take quite a few more photographs with a large group of people as opposed to individuals, couples and smaller groups of people to find the right one to depict the group’s preferred demeanor. You should now know if you're ready for taking your photography posing seriously. If you have read this whole report, then odds-on – you are! If you have enjoyed what you've learned so far and you would like to progress to levels where you can charge more for your portrait shots, get incredibly professional results from your subject shoots and place yourself at the master level, you should download this guide on photography posing secrets. You don't have to if you've learned enough from this report but I would hasten to tell you that you'll learn much more from this down-loadable guide on photography posing secrets. ...all the best, Roy Barker.

Birthday Meanings

Read this document on Scribd: Birthday Meanings

Is your birthday day 1 of the month? Your Life You are very curious and dedicative. When you are interested in something, everything else has to wait. This is your quality. But if you learn to be more patient and complete what you have started, you will be successful in life. Your Love You believe in love at first sight. You won't wait to learn more about the person. Vise versa, people who fail to impress you will hardly get a chance to be your friend. Your emotion is on the extreme. You can only love or hate, nothing in between and this often shows in your __ex-pression. Try not to end a relationship in a quarrel. Is your birthday day 2 of the month? Your Life You have great common sense but usually fail to follow through. This might happens because you are too busy with your mission and shut yourself from the outside world. You are clever and profound so there's a slight chance for self-control problem. Your Love Your love progress slowly, and quietly. You seem to be contented with your unrequited love. Your are a romantic and loyal lover. Is your birthday day 3 of the month? Your Life Although you are innocent and romantic but your __ex-pression often mislead others that you are an active, fun loving kid. Because of your double personality, it's hard for others to really know the real you. You are careful and patient. Your Love Your love is the greatest which often surprises others. No one can bring you to light when you are in love. Your confidence might lead you to the track your parents disagree. Is your birthday day 4 of the month? Your Life You usually think before acting which makes your life quite easy. But you often are the one who give yourself a hard time by being paranoid. People might not truly understand you but you are really nice to be around. You are cheerful and friendly. Your Love Still water runs deep, that's what you are. You always surprise others with your new character when you are in love. Your love trap often comes unexpectedly and your love life is full of surprises. Is your birthday day 5 of the month? Your Life Although you are on the quiet side, but you enjoy excitement and changes. Routine is something you cannot stand. Because of your extreme confidence, you hardly ask others for opinion. You believe in leading your own life, and you have got the gift in doing so. Your Love Nothing can stop you from making progress in your love life. Once you are in love, you feel the ownership of your lover. A third party can only makes your jealousy becomes worse. Is your birthday day 6 of the month? Your Life You are generous with people in need, sometimes to an extreme that people find you nosey. Your hidden courage and dedication often surprise others. Your imagination is extremely unique. Your Love Your love life is on the smooth track because it grows from friendship. Although you may not make a sweet lover but your sincerity bring happiness to your couple. Is your birthday day 7 of the month? Your Life You are sensitive to changes around you but your feeling is hardly expressed. You hate exaggerations. Under your quiet personality, you are rather stubborn and self-centered. These qualities are the force behind your extreme persistence. Your Love You have enormous courage to please your lover. Your relationship often progress quickly. Is your birthday day 8 of the month? Your Life You have pleasant and friendly personality. People look u to your wit and imagination. You are unpredictable and hardly complete what you started, which sometimes create negative impact to people around you. Your Love Falling in love becomes your routine. Most of the time you are lucky. You fascinate people with good taste but you never have enough with one. Although your love progresses very fast, it never lasts. Is your birthday day 9 of the month? Your Life You often have problem in promoting yourself, just because you don't know how to express your true self. On the other hand, you don't really care what they think. This is why people misunderstand you until they really get a chance to learn about your pleasant personality. Opposite sex find you mysterious and worth searching. Your wit is remarkable but sometimes you are too fast to follow. Your Love You won't reveal your feeling even after dreaming about the same guy over and over. Your first love lasts forever. You are responsible to the feeling of your lover. The chance to betray your lover is none. You have luck with children. Is your birthday day 10 of the month? Your Life You are very capable. If you are a woman, you have high chance to be a renowned workingwoman. If you are a man, your path to fame and honor is near. As an innovator, you are not a good follower. You are good in implementing your imagination and share it with others. You are always well dressed. Your Love You often lose your love ones from being too jealous. You always feel like you own the person you fall in love with and that often blows your relationship. Is your birthday day 11 of the month? Your Life You are gracious, elegant and prudent. People admire your qualities and some even become jealous of you. You are realistic, flexible and adaptable. You are remarkably kind and moral person. Your Love You are willing to sacrifice yourself for the one you love. Your lover will always have your gentleness, care and loyalty. You will always be happy to hand around the one you love. Is your birthday day 12 of the month? Your Life You are friendly, humorous and full of energy. You are open-minded and do not care for minor details. Your weak point is your hot temper. Your Love You are willing to start off in one-sided love affairs because you strongly believe that you will eventually win his/her heart. On the other hand, once you are together, you always want to do things your way, which is often the fire starter. You usually run in and out of love quickly. Is your birthday day 13 of the month? Your Life You are sincere and easy going. Flattering and charming around are not your style. You care so much for freedom that often leads you to the difficult path. Because of your sincerity, most people find you easy to be around although you are sometimes too straightforward. Your Love Your gentleness, care and sincerity make you an attractive person. Eventhough you don't intend to be charming, but you naturally are, especially in the eyes of opposite sex. Is your birthday day 14 of the month? Your Life You are so confident that sometimes you forget about the people around you. If you have to be in one of the two teams, you will choose to be in the winning team. On the other hand, you are kind and caring but above all, you care for your own benefits. Your imagination is unique and often gets implemented shortly after it comes across. Your Love You will not get soft with the one you don't really like, no matter how hard he/she tries. But once you feel for someone you have chosen, there's no getting back. Is your birthday day 15 of the month? Your Life You are outgoing and love to be at the center of attention. From the outside, you may seem flashy, flirty, and tricky but your true self is strong, full of hope to be the leader. When you fail to convince someone, you will get frustrated, and perhaps let your temper shows. Your Love You are emotional. Many can win your heart at once, but not for long. This is why you hardly win a decent relationship. Is your birthday day 16 of the month? Your Life You always follow the good and the right instead of listening to your heart. Another word, you are a perfectionist. You care for every word people say about you. You often seen isolated while you are, by nature, curious and a dreamer who is ready to get over the edge to make your dream comes true. Your Love You often fall in love with a person who is much different from you, in age and other aspects. Your relationship grows on friendship. Love at fist sight is not your style. Is your birthday day 17 of the month? Your Life You neither want to be interfered nor have the desire to mess with others' life. But you are friendly and occasionally a party animal. You are always in a circle of friends. You often do things in your own way that occasionally go beyond the acceptable limit. People may find you childish and not very attractive in that sense. Your Love Your fun-loving character attracts opposite sex. Many of those are great.You often find yourself trapped among a few great guys while you have to choose only one. Is your birthday day 18 of the month? Your Life At first glance, people think you are quiet type of person. Actually you are cheerful, but conditionally. You will show your joyful character only in good mood. One the other hand, when you are moody, no one would dare to be around. Because of your emotion fluctuation and frank character, some find you hard to be around. Your Love You hardly show your feeling towards opposite sex no matter how much you like him/her. Your partner also has similar character so your love affairs often take quite a while to flourish. Time tells it all. Your sincerity makes you very attractive. Is your birthday day 19 of the month? Your Life You are great in managing everything in your life and this is how you gain respect from others. Because of this quality, you sometimes feel that you are better than the rest. Extreme confidence might lead you to the wrong path. You are a free bird and want to lead your own life. Your Love You love life is rather different from others'. When you are in love, nothing can stop you. You may often fight with your partner but, soon after that, you will make up in a way that surprises others. Is your birthday day 20 of the month? Your Life You are prudent, circumspect and take things seriously. Before you make any move, you will think of a few alternatives that might take a while. You are patient, imaginative and target oriented. You value friendship more than anything else. Your Love You usually study your partner carefully before making any move. You never demand anything beyond the natural quality of that person. Your sincerity doesn't bring excitement in your love life but it brings deeply grown relationship. Is your birthday day 21 of the month? Your Life You are curious and a true follower. You can please someone so much that it seem like you are trying to charm that person. You hide your disagreement under your smiling face. This is a charming quality of yours. Your Love You are quite unlucky in love. You are loved by someone you don't like while your dream man is so far away. Your love life is occasionally under turbulence. Sometimes you don't have the clear view of the guy in your heart. Is your birthday day 22 of the month? Your Life You have the boss character, but not a leader. Most people look up to you for your capability and confidence although they find you quite stubborn. You should listen more to others. You are a unique and charming individual. Your Love You hardly take the moderate track. You either love or hate someone. Whom you call friends are the chosen ones. If any of them betray you, you won't let them get away without having hard time. Is your birthday day 23 of the month? Your Life You never live your life in the way others want you to. You are an independent individual who loves challenges and excitement. You are ready to face with the result of your decision. You are usually the one your friends count on. Your Love Because you love excitements, you occasionally get involved in forbidden love affairs. You may fall in love with a married person and no one can stop you from making progress. You are very charming, although you might not realize it. Is your birthday day 24 of the month? Your Life You are very optimistic and that's why you always enjoy life. You are gifted in entertaining others. Your friends love and trust you. You'll be the first they come to when they are in need of someone to speak their heart out. Your Love Sometimes you fall in love just because you want to be in love, not that you really like that person. You always be seen as a sweet couple but you can't really get over your love ones from past. Your partner is usually crazy about you because you are remarkably charming and romantic. Is your birthday day 25 of the month? Your Life You are a warrior. No obstacle can stop you from reaching your goal. You always keep yourself busy. This quality plus your responsibility will eventually bring you success. Your Love You adore your partner as the number one priority. You value your love one more than yourself. Your love is the greatest of all and your have potential to get married young. Is your birthday day 26 of the month? Your Life You are always curious and responsive to changes. Routine life is not the way you choose to live. Travelling is your favorite hobby because excitement is what you are after. Your Love You will not stand being around the one you dislike. Your love comes and goes quickly. You can be deeply in love but soon after you will be looking around for the next one. Is your birthday day 27 of the month? Your Life You are sensitive and vulnerable. Tears often run down your cheeks even when the matter is not that bad. This might be the result from being to pessimistic. You might seem cold on the shell, but your inner self is a kind loving person. Your Love You will be elegantly dressed, no matter how casually dressed your date may be. You are emanding in love and sometimes to an unacceptable extend. Is your birthday day 28 of the month? Your Life You are a capable person but you usually underestimate your own ability. This is the cause of missing numbers of opportunity to step forward. If you try to give yourself a chance, you can be successful in life. Try to see things on the bright side and you will be happier than ever. Your Love You are quite unlucky in love. The one in your arm is not the one in your heart. Your love has so many ups and downs. You often chicken out before seeing any progress in love. Is your birthday day 29 of the month? Your Life You can trust your sixth sense. Life is exciting so routine job is not your interest. You have great ideas and fantastic imagination. You often feel tired of things and people around you. Your Love You can tell what's in the mind of another person just from looking into his/her eyes. You are paranoid and jealous and these are the cause of fights between you and your lover. Sometimes the thing you believe in is just your imagination. Is your birthday day 30 of the month? Your Life You are always surrounded by a circle of friends. You are friendly and fun to be with. Though you occasionally disappoint them by being stubborn, but over all, they love your qualities. Your Love You want to have full control of your love and that's not a nice way to treat your partner. You take your time in saying yes to his wedding proposal or if you are a man, you will not propose anyone until you are certainly confident which might take ages. Is your birthday day 31 of the month? Your Life Your emotion is hard to predict. You can be sad this minute and happy in the next. People might find it difficult to follow your emotion and understand you. You tend to take things seriously. Your Love You take your time to study a person before falling in love. Once you decide that he or she is the one, no one can stop you from making progress, even your partner