Nov 20, 2008

Life is Short

Jul 15, 2008

Me...

I guess its better you dont know about me!.. \0/
====================================


1. I am the MOST irritating person u ever gonna find..

2. I look decent.. But.. i am not.

3. My BAD habits is that I smoke, but don't Drink anymore...

4. I LOVE people who are TRUE to themself..

5. I HATE liers...

6. I am DEDICATED to the work I do... but often people dont feel it.

7. I dont lie.. But if i do, I would definetely confess.

8. Trust me on this.... I MAKE and DO the WILDEST and the most FREAKIST ideas ever.....

9. I am DAMN creative.... but dint make proper use of it.. thats why Bill Gates is still famous...

10. I do interact with lots of people and got to know many people..

11. I am a Psychologist from experience..

12. I am a Hardcore Capricorn you can find all the features of a Capricorn...

13. I Love my parents.. but never showed them that i love them..

14. I love people who loves me.. and I still love people who now hates me.. (Love them in the name of God, but those who i hate believe.. they are god)

15. I am a computer geek. So if u ask me to choose girlfriend or a laptop.. U know what i am gonna choose..

16. My dream is to be the MOST terrifying hacker for the hackers in this world..

17. I am not a spendthrift.. I SAVE a lot of money so that i can spend it in one shot...

18. Girls HATE me... but at the same time they hate to LEAVE me as well....recently 1 did (She knows why? better than anyone else does...)

19. If i get a wish... I wish i can go back in PAST and UNDO what I did....

20. I am VERY possessive..

21. I hate people who have achieved nothing and have attitude and shows off..

22. I give life to a person who can care n love me like the way I do.

23. I love Cars.. I love Speed..

24. I am committed..... committed to myself..

25. If bollywood sex bomb comes in my life... I will run for my life..

Jul 6, 2008

What are Widgets?

Widgets are accessories that you can place on any of your pages to add more interactivity to your site. Let visitors interact with an event calendar, take part in an online poll, check the weather, or get directions to a party. These stylish accessories can access information on your personal Comcast site or connect to various online sources for up-to-the-minute information and data.


There are currently six Widgets available for use within your Personal Web Page, including:


  • Calendar - The Calendar widget displays the current month on your web page and highlights any events that you have entered using your Event Planner.

  • Upcoming Events - The Upcoming Events widget will display a badge on your website that links users to the next event on your Event Planner.

  • Guest Book - The Guestbook widget allows visitors to leave you notes on your sidebar (you can delete any entries you do not like).

  • Polls - The Poll Widget allows you to display a poll on your site and allows visitors to vote and view vote results.

  • Weather - The Weather widget displays the current temperature and conditions for any zip code you enter. Weather is pulled in real-time from Weather.com.

  • Hit Counter - Keep track of how many hits your Personal Web Pages are getting.


Following types of data can be added in a widget :


  1. Globally Available Data

  2. Page Header

  3. Blog Posts

  4. Blog Archives

  5. Profile

  6. Text/HTML/Javascript

  7. Feed

  8. Picture

  9. Labels

  10. List

  11. Link list

  12. Logo

Sterling On Wall Street

Forbes Announces;


The Forbes Platinum 400, an exclusive list of the best big companies in America, is a good place to look for potential stock market stars.

In six of the past seven years, our annual list--also known as America's Best Big Companies --outperformed the stock market over the following 12 months. The Platinum 400 had its best 12-month run in 2003, when it gained an average 26% versus 13% from the S&P 500 and 10% for the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

he only time the Platinum 400 disappointed, was in its inaugural year, 1999, in which the median 400 stock lost 2% and the average stock was up 11%. During that stretch, the S&P 500 gained 19% and the Dow 20%.

Platinum 400 Performance Scorecard

Year Price Performance Relative To Issue Date* Actual S&P 500** Dow Jones**
1999 Average 11.1% 94 93
Median -1.9 82 81
2000 Average 6.5 111 110
Median 3.8 108 107
2001 Average 3.8 123 113
Median 0.9 119 110
2002 Average -2.5 118 106
Median -1.4 119 108
2003 Average 25.9 111 114
Median 19.7 106 109
2004 Average 16.0 105 109
Median 13.6 102 107
2005 Average 14.9 107 110
Median 8.7 101 104

* The price performance for each year is measured over 12 months beginning from the respective issue's pricing date.
** Relative to S&P and Dow figures are the ending value of $100 invested in the stock, divided by the ending value of $1 invested in the respective index.

Source: FT Interactive Data via FactSet Research Systems


Jul 5, 2008

Reasons to sleep & wake up early.



Evening at 9 - 11pm:
is the time for eliminating unnecessary/toxic chemicals (detoxification) from the antibody system (lymph nodes). This time duration should be spent by relaxing or listening to music. If during this time a housewife is still in an unrelaxed state such as washing the dishes or monitoring children doing their homework, this will have a negative impact on health.

Evening at 11pm - 1am: is the detoxification process in the liver, and ideally should be done in a deep sleep state.

Early morning 1 - 3am: detoxification process in the gall, also ideally done in a deep sleep state.

Early morning 3 - 5am: detoxification in the lungs.. Therefore there will sometimes be a severe cough for cough sufferers during this time. Since the detoxification process had reached the respiratory tract, there is no need to take cough medicine so as not to interfere with toxin removal process.

Morning 5 - 7am: detoxification in the colon, you should empty your bowel.

Morning 7 - 9am: absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, you should be having breakfast at this time. Breakfast should be earlier, before 6:30am, for those who are sick. Breakfast before 7:30am is very beneficial to those wanting to stay fit. Those who always skip breakfast, they should change their habits, and it is still better to eat breakfast late until 9 - 10am rather than no meal at all.

Sleeping so late and waking up too late will disrupt the process of removing unnecessary chemicals. Aside from that, midnight to 4:00 am is the time when the bone marrow produces blood. Therefore, have a good sleep and don't sleep late.

TAKE CARE ABOUT YOUR HEALTH


Live Life Without Limits!

3 monkeys of 21st century

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Baby names & Meanings

Few words about Career Astrology


Karma means "action."


In Vedic culture the career is shown by the karma bhava, literally the "house of action." Each of us is a unique being with unique talents and abilities, strengths and weaknesses. Through that unique nature we act in a world of consequence and take our place in it.


We all want to feel powerful, because underneath it all, we are pure power - like the Sun itself. The Sun is the "Karaka" (indicator) of career because just like the Sun, we all want to shine. We all want to be a beacon of light and clarity to others. We all want to know we can be accountable, responsible and handle our duties in a dignified and humble way. Many say they dream of having power, but truthfully, how many among us are ready to step up and be accountable? How many are ready to shine brightly and handle the scrutiny that accompanies being in a position of authority. How many of us crumble and whither beneath even mild scrutiny. How many give up our causes quickly when faced with being unpopular or having to compete? Can we sacrifice our pettiness and jealousy only if the cause is just? How will we handle this pressure, like a tyrant or a generous king? Can we be generous like the Sun, who even though he has all the power, holds onto to none of it? Or will we be like a greedy king, insisting on shining brighter than others, using the power we have to dominate. HOw much integrity do we really have? These larger themes are what the soul learns through the career.


That "Vision Thing."


We are feel compelled to do a great thing that only we can envision. Often times it is a combination of material prosperity for us and our family, doing work that the entire world will benefit from. We all dream big, what are your dreams? The Astrology Chart will show your deeper abilities, the best way to go about actualizing them and the reason you haven't achieved all that you want to achieve. Not only that, it will give strategies that will empower you to get the most out of your Career and life in general.

Heart Attacks & Drinking Warm Water

Below article is really informative and I think it applies to most of us. Please note.......


Heart Attacks And Drinking Warm Water





This is a very good article. Not only about the warm water after your meal, but about

Heart Attacks . The Chinese and Japanese drink hot tea with their meals, not cold water, maybe it is time we adopt their drinking habit while eating.





For those who like to drink cold water from the fridge, this article is applicable to you,because you are in great danger.It is nice to have a cup of cold drink after a meal. However, the cold water will solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed. It will slow down the digestion. Once this 'sludge' reacts with the acid, it will break down and be absorbed by the intestine faster than the solid food. It will line the intestine. Very soon, this will turn into fats and lead to cancer. It is best to drink hot soup or warm water after a meal.


Common Symptoms Of Heart Attack...


A serious note about heart attacks - You should know that not every heart attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting. Be aware of intense pain in the jaw line.


You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack. Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms. 60% of people who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up. Pain in the jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let's be careful and be aware. The more we know, the better chance we could survive.


A cardiologist says if everyone who reads this message sends it to 10 people, you can be sure that we'll save at least one life. Read this & Send to a friend. It could save a life. So, please be a true friend and send this article to all your friends you care about.

A small touching story

A small touching story mainly for professionals. ..




A man came home from work late, tired and irritated, to find his

5-year old son waiting for him at the door.





SON: "Daddy, may I ask you a question?"



DAD: "Yeah sure, what is it?" replied the man.




SON: "Daddy, how much do you make an hour?"



DAD: "That's none of your business. Why do you ask such a thing?"


the man said angrily.



SON: "I just want to know. Please tell me, how much do you make an


hour?"



DAD: "If you must know, I make Rs.100 an hour."



SON: "Oh," the little boy replied, with his head down.




SON: "Daddy, may I please borrow Rs.50?"




The father was furious, "If the only reason you asked that is so you


can borrow some money to buy a silly toy or some other nonsense, then

you march yourself straight to your room and go to bed. Think about


why you are being so selfish. I work hard everyday for such this

childish behavior.."




The little boy quietly went to his room and shut the door.



The man sat down and started to get even angrier about the little


boy's questions. How dare he ask such questions only to get some

money?



After about an hour or so, the man had calmed down, and started to


think: Maybe there was something he really needed to buy with that

Rs.50 and he really didn't ask for money very often. The man went to


the door of the little boy's room and opened the door.


"Are you asleep, son?" He asked.




"No daddy, I'm awake," replied the boy.



"I've been thinking, maybe I was too hard on you earlier" said the


man.



"It's been a long day and I took out my aggravation on you.. Here's the


Rs.50 you asked for."



The little boy sat straight up, smiling. "Oh, thank you daddy!" He


yelled.



Then, reaching under his pillow he pulled out some crumpled up bills.

The man saw that the boy already had money, started to get angry


again.. The little boy slowly counted out his money, and then looked up

at his father.




"Why do you want more money if you already have some?" the father

grumbled.




"Because I didn't have enough, but now I do," the little boy replied..



"Daddy, I have Rs.100 now. Can I buy an hour of your time?




Please come home early tomorrow. I would like to have dinner with

you."




The father was crushed. He put his arms around his little son, and he

begged for his forgiveness.




It's just a short reminder to all of you working so hard in life. We

should not let time slip through our fingers without having spent some


time with those who really matter to us, those close to our hearts.



Do remember to share that Rs.100 worth of your time with someone you love.


If we die tomorrow, the company that we are working for could easily

replace us in a matter of days.


But the family & friends we leave behind will feel the loss for the

rest of their lives. And come to think of it, we pour ourselves more

into work than to our family.

Wisdom of Larry the Cable Guy

1. A day without sunshine is like night.

2. On the other hand, you have different fingers.

3. 42.7 percent of all statistics are made up on the spot.

4. 99 percent of lawyers give the rest a bad name.

5. Remember, half the people you know are below average.

6. He who laughs last thinks the slowest.

7. Depression is merely anger without enthusiasm.

8. The early bird may get the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese in the trap.

9. Support bacteria. They're the only culture some people have.

10. A clear conscience is usually the sign of a bad memory.

11. Change is inevitable, except from vending machines.

12. If you think nobody cares, try missing a couple of payments.

13. How many of you believe in psycho-kinesis? Raise my hand.

14. OK, so what's the speed of dark?

15. When everything is coming your way, you're in the wrong lane.

16. Hard work pays off in the future. Laziness pays off now.

17. How much deeper would the ocean be without sponges?

18. Eagles may soar, but weasels don't get sucked into jet engines.

19. What happens if you get scared half to death, twice?

20. Why do psychics have to ask you for your name?

21. Inside every older person is a younger person wondering, 'What the heck happened?'

22. Light travels faster than sound. That's why some people appear bright until you hear them speak.

Test for Idiocy



B elow are four (4) questions and a bonus question. You have to answer them instantly. You can't take your time, answer all of them immediately . OK?



Let's find out just how clever you really are....




Ready? GO!!!




First Question:


Y ou are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?








~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~









Answer: If you answered that you are first, then you are

absolutel! y wrong! If you overtake the second person, you take his place, so you are second!


Try not to screw up next time.

Now answer the second question,

but don't take as much time as you took for the first one, OK ?


Second Question:

If you overtake the last person, then you are...?









~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~









Answer: If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again. Tell me, how can you overtake the LAST Person?



You're not very good at this, are you?









Third Question:

Very tricky arithmetic! Note: This must be done in your head only.

Do NOT use paper and pencil or a calculator. Try it.




Take 1000 and add 40 to it.. Now add another 1000 . Now add 30

Add another 1000 . Now add 20 . Now add another 1000

Now add 10 . What is the total?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~



Did you get 5000?


The correct answer is actually 4100.




If you don't believe it, check it with a calculator!

Today is definitely not your day, is it?

Maybe you'll get the last question right....

...Maybe.




Fourth Question:


Mary's father has five daughters: 1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono. What is the ! name of the fifth daughter?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~


Did you Answer Nunu?

NO! Of course it isn't.

Her name is Mary. Read the question again!




Okay, now the bonus round:

I may have sent this one before. I! 'm never sure..





A mute person goes into a shop and wants to buy a toothbrush. By

imitating the action of brushing his teeth he successfully

expresses himself to the shopkeeper and the purchase is

done.



Next, a blind man comes into the shop who wants to buy a pair of

sunglasses; how does HE indicate what he wants?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~







He just has to open his mouth and ask...

It's really very simple.... Like you!








PASS TH IS ON TO FRUSTRATE THE

SMART PEOPLE IN YOUR LIFE












Test for Idiocy

B elow are four (4) questions and a bonus question. You have to answer them instantly. You can't take your time, answer all of them immediately . OK?



Let's find out just how clever you really are....




Ready? GO!!!




First Question:


Y ou are participating in a race. You overtake the second person. What position are you in?








~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~









Answer: If you answered that you are first, then you are

absolutel! y wrong! If you overtake the second person, you take his place, so you are second!


Try not to screw up next time.

Now answer the second question,

but don't take as much time as you took for the first one, OK ?


Second Question:

If you overtake the last person, then you are...?









~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~









Answer: If you answered that you are second to last, then you are wrong again. Tell me, how can you overtake the LAST Person?



You're not very good at this, are you?









Third Question:

Very tricky arithmetic! Note: This must be done in your head only.

Do NOT use paper and pencil or a calculator. Try it.




Take 1000 and add 40 to it.. Now add another 1000 . Now add 30

Add another 1000 . Now add 20 . Now add another 1000

Now add 10 . What is the total?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~



Did you get 5000?


The correct answer is actually 4100.




If you don't believe it, check it with a calculator!

Today is definitely not your day, is it?

Maybe you'll get the last question right....

...Maybe.




Fourth Question:


Mary's father has five daughters: 1. Nana, 2. Nene, 3. Nini, 4. Nono. What is the ! name of the fifth daughter?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~


Did you Answer Nunu?

NO! Of course it isn't.

Her name is Mary. Read the question again!




Okay, now the bonus round:

I may have sent this one before. I! 'm never sure..





A mute person goes into a shop and wants to buy a toothbrush. By

imitating the action of brushing his teeth he successfully

expresses himself to the shopkeeper and the purchase is

done.



Next, a blind man comes into the shop who wants to buy a pair of

sunglasses; how does HE indicate what he wants?





~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~







He just has to open his mouth and ask...

It's really very simple.... Like you!








PASS TH IS ON TO FRUSTRATE THE SMART PEOPLE IN YOUR LIFE







Jul 4, 2008

Remember this 21

ONE. Give people more than they expect and do it cheerfully.


TWO. Marry a man/woman you love to talk to. As you get older, their conversational skills will be as important as any other.


THREE. Don't believe all you hear, spend all you have or sleep all you want.


FOUR. When you say, 'I love you,' mean it.


FIVE. When you say, 'I'm sorry ,' look the person in the eye.


SIX. Be engaged at least six months before you get married.


SEVEN. Believe in love at first sight.


EIGHT. Never laugh at anyone's dreams. People who don't have dreams don't have much.


NINE. Love deeply and passionately. Yo u might get hurt but it's the only way to live life completely.


TEN. In disagreements, fight fairly. No name calling.


ELEVEN. Don't judge people by their relatives.


TWELVE. Talk slowly but think quickly.


THIRTEEN. When someone asks you a question you don't want to answer, smile and ask, 'Why do you want to know?'


FOURTEEN. Remember that great love and great achievements involve great risk.


FIFTEEN. Say 'bless you' when you hear someone sneeze.


SIXTEEN. When you lose, don't lose the lesson.


SEVENTEEN. Remember the three R's: Respect for self; Respect for others; and Responsibility for all your actions.


EIGHTEEN. Don't let a little dispute injure a great friendship.


NINETEEN. When you realize you've made a mistake, take immediate steps to correct it.


TWENTY. Smile when picking up the phone. The caller will hear it in your voice.


TWENTY- ONE. Spend some time alone.

MANAGERS


Bet you will love this!!!


A team of Managers was given an assignment to measure the height of a flagpole. So the Managers go out to the flagpole with ladders and tape. They're falling off the ladders, dropping the tape measures - the whole thing is just a mess.

An Engineer comes along and sees what they're trying to do, walks over, pulls the flagpole out of the ground, lays it flat, measures it from end to end, gives the measurement to one of the managers and walks away.

After the Engineer has gone, one manager turns to another and laughs." See this idiot. We're looking for height and he gives the length!"

Moral: "No matter what good you do, Managers can always find fault in you".

40 Tips for A Better Life

  1. Take a 10-30 minutes walk every day.. And while you walk, smile.

  2. Sit in silence for at least 10 minutes each day.

  3. Sleep for 7 hours.

  4. Live with the 3 E's -- Energy, Enthusiasm, and Empathy.

  5. Play more games.

  6. Read more books than you did in 2007.

  7. Make time to practice meditation, yoga, and prayer. They provide us with daily fuel for our busy lives.

  8. Spend time with people over the age of 70 & under the age of 6.

  9. Dream more while you are awake.

  10. Eat more foods that grow on trees and plants and eat less food that is manufactured in plants.

  11. Drink plenty of water.

  12. Try to make at least three people smile each day.

  13. Don't waste your precious energy on gossip..

  14. Forget issues of the past. Don't remind your partner with his/her mistakes of the past. That will ruin your present happiness.

  15. Don't have negative thoughts or things you cannot control. Instead invest your energy in the positive present moment.

  16. Realize that life is a school and you are here to learn. Problems are simply part of the curriculum that appear and fade away like algebra class but the lessons you learn will last a lifetime.

  17. Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a beggar.

  18. Smile and laugh more.

  19. Life is too short to waste time hating anyone.. Don't hate others.

  20. Don't take yourself so seriously. No one else does.

  21. You don't have to win every argument. Agree to disagree.

  22. Make peace with your past so it won't spoil the present.

  23. Don't compare your life to others'. You have no idea what their journey is all about. Don't compare your partner with others.

  24. No one is in charge of your happiness except you.

  25. Forgive everyone for everything.

  26. What other people think of you is none of your business.

  27. GOD heals everything.

  28. However good or bad a situation is, it will change.

  29. Your job won't take care of you when you are sick. Your friends will. Stay in touch.

  30. Get rid of anything that isn't useful, beautiful or joyful.

  31. Envy is a waste of time. You already have all you need.

  32. The best is yet to come.

  33. No matter how you feel, get up, dress up and show up.

  34. Do the right thing!

  35. Call your family often.

  36. Your Inner most is always happy. So, be happy.

  37. Each day give something good to others.

  38. Don't over do. Keep your limits.

  39. When you awake alive in the morning, thank GOD for it.

  40. Please pass this information to all you care about.

Jun 24, 2008

VENKY

Tirumala trip on Jun 14, 2008




Myself, Swaminathan and Oracle Team we started at bangalore on 13th June, 2008 reached Tirupathi by about 12.30 am on 14th June, 2008. we had dinner next to the bus stand and took a jeep till alipiri, the starting point to climb up the hill. this is complete photos while climbing up the hill.

Jun 22, 2008

Vastu Purusha Mandala (Mandalam)

Vastu Purusha Mandala pooja Performed at my residence "SRIVARI BLISS" under the Guidance of Sri Gopala Krishna Bhat, Bangalore 0n 21st June, 2008.



Now lets get to know the concept of Vastu Purusha Mandala. The faith that Earth is a living organism, throbbing with life and energy; is fundamental to the Vastu Shastra. That living energy is symbolized as a person; he is the Vastu Purusha. The site for the proposed construction is his field; Vastu Purusha Mandala. In fact the Vastu Purusha Mandala, the site plan, is his body; and it is treated as such. His height extends from the South West corner (pitrah) to the North East corner (Agni).The Vastu Purusha Mandala also depicts the origin of the effects on the human body. All symbolisms flow from these visualizations.


Purusha means 'person' literally and refers to Universal Man. Purusha is the body of god incarnated in the ground of existence, divided within the myriad forms. He is also that fragmented body simultaneously sacrificed for the restoration of unity.


Vastu Purusha is associated with the Earth and its movable and immovable basic elements of nature, such as the earth, water, fire, air and space; just as a human being does. The Vastu purusha mandala is in some ways a development of the four pointed or cornered earth mandala having astronomical reference points. Further, the Vastu Purusha Mandala is also the cosmos in miniature; and the texts believe “what obtains in a microcosm, obtains in macrocosm too (yatha pinde thatha brahmande).”


Similarly, it believes that,"Everything is governed by one law. A human being is a microcosmos, i.e. the laws prevailing in the cosmos also operate in the minutest space of the human being." In the end, the nature, the man and his creations are all one.


“The vastu-purusha-mandala represents the manifest form of the Cosmic Being; upon which the temple is built and in whom the temple rests. The temple is situated in Him, comes from Him, and is a manifestation of Him. The vastu-purusha-mandala is both the body of the Cosmic Being and a bodily device by which those who have the requisite knowledge attain the best results in temple building.” (Stella Kramrisch,; The Hindu Temple, Vol. I)


The Vastu Purusha is visualized as lying with his face and stomach touching the ground; to suggest as if he is carrying the weight of the structure. His head is at North East (ishanya) and his legs are at the South West corner (nairutya).


The South West corner (nairutya) where the Vastu Purusha has his legs corresponds to the Muladhara chakra and denotes the earth principle. Just as the legs support the weight of the body, the base (adhistana) for the muladhara should be stable and strong. Accordingly, the South West portion of the building is the load bearing area; and should be strong enough to support heavy weights. Just as the feet are warm, the South West cell represents warmth and heat; even according to the atmospheric cycles the South West region receives comparatively more heat.



Svadhistana chakra is in the lower stomach region near the kidneys. It is related to water principle (apa).On the Vastu Purusha Mandala; it is to the South and to the West .Therefore the wet areas like bathroom etc are recommended in the south or in the west portions of the building. It is for sewerage (utsarjana).


The general guidelines are, the South West should be heavier and North East where gods dwell should not be so .The base should be heavy and the apex be lighter; just as in the case of a hill or a tree. The sensitive organs like brain, eyes, ears tounge are in the head; and the head should be lighter and secure. The head of the Vastu Purusha is in the North East and it should be kept free of pillars. Activities like worship, study are recommended in and towards east and adjoining directions.-North east and South East.


Jun 17, 2008

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA


NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA - INDIAN NATIONAL ANTHEM




Jana-Gana-Mana

(Thou Art the Ruler of All Minds)



The Indian National anthem, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The lyrics were rendered into English by Tagore himself.

NATIONAL ANTHEM OF INDIA

" Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka Jaya He
Bharat Bhagya Vidhata
Punjab Sindh Gujarat Maratha
Dravida Utkala Banga
Vindhya Himachal Yamuna Ganga
Ucchala Jaladhi Taranga
Tubh Shubha Name Jage
Tubh Shubha Ashisha Mange
Gahe Tubh Jaya Gata
Jan Gan Mangaldayak Jay He
Bharat Bhagya Vidhata
Jaye He ! Jaye He ! Jaye He !
Jaye,Jaye,Jaye,Jaye He "

Translation of The national anthem- Jana Gana Mana In English

Thou are the ruler of the minds of all people, dispenser of India's destiny.

The name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujurat and Maratha. Of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal.

It Echoes in the hills of Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for your blessing and sing thy praise. The salvation of all peaople is thy hand, thou dispenser of India's destiny. Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

The Jana Gana Mana was composed by Shri Rabindranath Tagore and first sung at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress on December 27th, 1911. It was adopted as the National Anthem of India on 24th January, 1950 by the Constituent Assembly. The first stanza( out of five stanzas) of the song forms the National Anthem.



THE NATIONAL FLAG OF INDIA is in tricolour of deep saffron(Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal propotions.The flag is a horizontal tricolour in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes. The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white, for purity and truth; the green for faith and fertility. The design of the National Flag was adopted by India's constituent assembly on 22nd july, 1947. It's use and display are regulated by a code. The Indian flag symbolizes freedom. The late Prime Minister Pandit Nehru called it a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people.



The National emblem is a symbol of contemporary India's reaffirmation of its commitment to world peace and goodwill.

The National Emblem of India is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh State. The Lion Capital was erected in the 3rd century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Lord Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation..

It is symbolic of India's reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on a abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).


In the state emblem adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the center of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted.

The four lions (one hidden from view) - symbolising power, courage and confidence - rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller animals - guardians of the four directions: the lion of the north, the elephant of the east, the horse of the south and the bull of the west.The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'


National Animal of India-THE TIGER.


The magnificent Tiger Panthera tigris (linnaeus), the national animal of India, is a rich-colored well-striped animal with a short coat. The combination of grace, strength, power has earned the tiger great respect and high esteem. Indian tigers are famous all over the world and one of the main attractions for the lovers of wild life. They are the crowning glory and the light of the Indian wild life.


Tough, muscular, majestic tigers roam about the Sunderbans of Bengal "burning bright in the darkness of the night." The natives of the forest worship the tiger as the deity that gives them honey and wax. The Sunderbans are their main habitat for their thick forests of Sunder trees. They feed on fish, cattle and sometimes human beings. The man-eaters are the most dreaded of all wild beasts. It is a common belief that a tiger does not harm anyone who has offered prayers to him. Tigers are fast runners, excellent swimmers and their eyesight is strong.


To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, which came down to just 1,827 in 1972, massive conservation program was initiated in April 1973, known as the 'Project Tiger'. This project aims to maintain a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values. Since then, the tiger population has shown a gradual increase and the census of 1989 puts the tiger population of the country at 4,334. So far, 19 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering over 29, 716 sq. km. forest area


National Bird of India-THE PEACOCK


Peacock is a large and majestic bird. It has got a long and beautiful tail. Both the peacock and the hen have crest. But the crest of hen is smaller in size. The main body of the cock is mottled brown in color. Especially, the metallic green color found on the lower neck is very attractive. Though peacocks are beautiful looking birds their calls are loud and coarse.


They move in-groups and they are normally spotted in the forests, villages and nearby fields. They are shy in nature. It feeds on lizards, snakes, grains and insects. The hen lays a maximum of five eggs, which are in pale cream color.


The significance of peacock is attached to cultures of India, Far East, Ancient Persia, Greek and Christian. In Hinduism, the image of the god of thunder, rains and war, Indra, was depicted in the form of a peacock. In south India, peacock is considered as a 'vahana' or vehilce of lord Muruga. The figure of peacock is painted in various Islamic religious buildings. In Christianity, the peacock was also known as the symbol of the 'Resurrection'.


In India people believe that whenever the cock spread its tails in an ornamental fashion, it indicates that rain is imminent. In a way it is partly true. At the sight of dark clouds the bird outspreads its tail and starts dancing in rhythmic fashion. Most of the folklore including Bharatha Natyam has got special dancing poses for the peacock dance.


National Flower of India- THE LOTUS

Among the various flowers of Indian sub-continent, the flower Lotus is regarded with divinity and grace. Often, Goddesses Lakshmi and Saraswathi are associated with the flower lotus. Even Lord Siva, who wanted to escape the wrath of the Lord Saneeswaran, morphed himself into the shape of a bee and took asylum inside a lotus. Buddhists regard this flower as a sacred one.

Lotus symbolizes purity, beauty, majesty, grace, fertility, wealth, richness, knowledge and serenity. They are found in white and pink colors in general and they grow in shallow and murky waters. Some blue colored flowers are also sighted. These flowers enjoy a warm sunlight and intolerant to cold weather. Hence they cannot be seen blossoming in the winter. The floating leaves and flowers have long stems, which contains air spaces to maintain buoyancy.


The plant is having various uniqueness attached to it. Though the large leaves of the plant are floating on the surface of the water, even a drop of water is not accommodated on top of the leaves. Perhaps, they are teaching the human beings, to lead a life of non-attachment and avoid the worldly pleasures.


Depending upon the level of water in the tank, the stems will rise. In this fashion, it is guiding the human beings to rise upto the situation leading to a genuine elevation in their lives. As the world famous 'Thirukural' says,

"Vellathanayathu malar neetam manthartham
ullath thanyathu ouyarvu"


signifying, in relation with the water level of a tank, the stem will rise. In the same way, depending upon their ambitions and thoughts, human beings can elevate themselves in their life.


In Indian religious epics, references of lotus are made, in relation with eyes and feet of divine persona. For instance "Kamala Kannan" referring Lord Krishna with the contextual meaning, a person having eyes with the color of the pink lotus. Also, it is coupled with the feet of deities. "Kamala Patham" means lotus feet implying the feet of the god. "Charan Kamala Patham" implying, submit oneself in totality, at the lotus feet of the god.


National Tree of India-THE BANYAN TREE.


THE BANYAN TREE-Called the Indian fig tree( Ficus bengalensis) grow over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic & longevity, the Banyan tree is considered immortal & sacred and is an integral part of the myths and legends in India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meetings under the shade of this huge shade-giving tree.


National Fruit of India-THE MANGO



The fruit Mango,of the tree Mangifera indica, is one of the most widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. This juicy, delicious fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are hundreds of varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours etc. Mangoes, have been cultivated in India since time immemorial. The famous Indian poet Kalidasa sang its praises.King Alexander relished its taste, as did the Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang. Akbar, the Moghal emperor planted over 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, known as Lakhi Bagh(India).



Jun 13, 2008

Photography - Art or Science?

Read this document on Scribd: Photography - Art or Science?

Photography - a new art or yet another scientific achievement By Alex Sirota http://iosart.com/photography-art-or-science Contents • Part I - History of Photography • Camera Obscura • Reflex Mirror • Optical Glass and Lenses Part II - Technology of Photography • Light Sensitive Materials • Daguerreotypes • Roll Film • Color • Digital Photography Part III - Photography as Art • Pictorialism and Impressionism • Naturalism • Straight Photography • New Vision of the 20th Century Part IV - Photographic Techniques • Stereoscopic Photography • Infrared Photography • Panoramic Photography • Astrophotography • Pinhole Photography • • • Part I History of Photography Photography The word “photography” which is derived from the Greek words for “light” and “writing”, was first used by Sir John Herschel in 1839, the year the invention of the photographic process was made public. L.J.M Daguerre, "The Louvre from the Left Bank of the Seine” daguerreotype,1839 Scientific Discoveries • The basics of optics - Camera Obscura • Optical glass • Chemical developments - light sensitive materials • Digital Photography Leonardo Da Vinci, The Magic Lantern, 1515 Camera Obscura Camera obscura - Latin, camera - chamber, obscura - dark A dark box or room with a hole in one end. If the hole is small enough, an inverted image can be seen on the opposite wall. Reflex Camera Obscura, Johannes Zahn, 1685 Camera Obscura - Ancient Times • China, Mo Ti (470-391 B.C.) • Greece, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) • • Egypt, Alhazen (965-1039 A.D.) Chinese texts • The basic optical principles of the pinhole are commented on in Chinese texts from the 5th century B.C. • Chinese writers had discovered by experiments that light travels in straight lines. • The philosopher Mo Ti (470-391 B.C.) was the first to record the formation of an inverted image with a pinhole or screen. • Mo Ti was aware that objects reflect light in all directions, and that rays from the top of an object, when passing through a hole, will produce the lower part of an image. Aristotle’s observations • Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) comments on pinhole image formation in his work “Problems”. • He asks his readers: "Why is it that an eclipse of the sun, if one looks at it through a sieve or through leaves, such as a plane-tree or other broadleaved tree, or if one joins the fingers of one hand over the fingers of the other, the rays are crescent-shaped where they reach the earth? Is it for the same reason as that when light shines through a rectangular peep-hole, it appears circular in the form of a cone?” • Aristotle found no satisfactory explanations to his observation and the problem remained unresolved until the 16th century. Alhazen’s experiments • Arabian physicist and mathematician Ibn Al-Haitam (965-1039 A.D.), also known as Alhazen, experimented with images seen through the pinhole. • He arranged three candles in a row and put a screen with a small hole between the candles and the wall. He noted that images were formed only by means of small holes and that the candle to the right made an image to the left on the wall. • From his observations he deduced the linearity of light. He also described how to view a solar eclipse using a camera obscura and was the first scientist to make this observation. Camera Obscura during the Renaissance • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) describes pinhole image formation in his “Codex atlanticus” (1502) • Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), an astronomer, uses the pinhole in his darkened room to study the solar eclipse of 1544. • Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615) describes the camera obscura in his “Magiae Naturalis” (1558) • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) coins the term “Camera obscura” and invents a portable camera obscura • The Camera Obscura is being used by both artists and scientists Leonardo da Vinci’s work Leonardo da Vinci, Self-Portrait, 1512 Leonardo da Vinci’s work (contd.) • Leonardo (1452-1519), familiar with the work of Alhazen and after an extensive study of optics and human vision publishes the first detailed description of the camera obscura in “Codex Atlanticus” (1502): “In the facade of a building, or a place, or a landscape is illuminated by the sun and a small hole is drilled in the wall of a room in a building facing this, which is not directly lighted by the sun, then all objects illuminated by the sun will send their images through this aperture and will appear, upside down, on the wall facing the hole” "You can catch these pictures on a piece of white paper, which is placed vertically in the room not far from that opening. The paper should be very thin and must be viewed from the back.” • Leonardo calls the camera obscura the “oculus artificialis” “the artificial eye” Leonardo da Vinci’s work (contd.) • Leonardo’s manuscripts give detailed accounts of the camera obscura effect, observations, diagrams and explanations of it's principle. • Due to Vinci's special form of writing (written backwards called Mirror Writing), his work on the camera would not become common knowledge in the civilized world for almost three centuries - these descriptions would remain unknown of for 297 years when Professor Venturi would decipher and publish them in 1797. Gemma Frisius • Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), a Dutch astronomer, had observed an eclipse of the sun at Louvain on January 24, 1544 using pinhole in his darkened room. • He later described the process in his book “De Radio Astronomica et Geometrica” (1545) along with an illustration of the camera obscura he used. • It is thought to be the first published illustration of a camera obscura. Giovanni Battista della Porta • The Neapolitan scientist, Porta (1538-1615) gave elaborate details in physics, alchemy, astronomy, magic, cooking, perfumes, toiletry and optics in his “Magiae Naturalis” (1558) The Cover of “Magiae Naturalis” (English Translation) Giovanni Battista della Porta (contd.) • This work was a popular piece of scientific literature in the sixteenth century in which Porta gives a thorough description of a camera obscura and the images that one would see. From about this point on, the camera obscura would become a useful tool to artists. • In the second edition of his popular title, which was published in 1588, Porta includes a lens for the camera instead of a pinhole. This improved definition and allowed an image to be sharply focused on a piece of ground glass, allowing the operator to trace a picture on a sheet of paper laid over the glass. The first page of “Magiae Naturalis” (English Translation) Giovanni Battista della Porta (contd.) • Della Porta has long been regarded as the inventor of the camera obscura because his description of the device has received much publicity, as did his camera obscura shows, but he was not the true “inventor”. • In fact there exists an earlier published description of the camera obscura - a translation of Vitruvius's “Treatise On Architecture” (1521) by Caesare Caesariano (1483-1543). • It is said that Della Porta made a huge "camera" in which he seated his guests, having arranged for a group of actors to perform outside so that the visitors could observe the images on the wall. The story goes, however, that the sight of up-side down performing images was too much for the visitors; they panicked and fled, and Battista was later brought to court on a charge of sorcery! Johannes Kepler • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), scholar and astronomer wrote about observing the sun using a room camera similar to the one described by Porta. Kepler described this event in his first published work on astronomy, “Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena” (1604). The first occurrence of the name "camera obscura" is found in this work. • Kepler's portable camera obscura (tent) is described in a paper “Reliquiae Wottonianae” (1651). This is one of the earliest English language descriptions given to the camera obscura. Portable 'Tent' Camera Obscura, Johannes Kepler Camera Obscura as an Artistic Aid • Since Giovanni Battista della Porta popularized the camera obscura in 1558 through his “Magiae Naturalis” book, it became increasingly popular among both artists and amateur painters. • Camera obscuras as drawing aids were soon found in many shapes and sizes. • When looking through the lens of a camera obscura, the view presented is actually reflected through the mirrors onto the paper or cloth and allows the artist to draw by tracing the outline. Camera Obscura as an Artistic Aid (contd.) • Its strength as an aid to drawing resides in its ability to distil onto a flat surface the confused visual information which strikes the eye. It was much used by Dutch still-life and by topographical painters. Eminent practitioners include the Dutch genre painter Vermeer in the 17th century and the Veduta painter Canaletto in the 18th century. Johannes Vermeer, Woman Holding a Balance, 1664 Reflex mirror and other improvements • As remarkable as the instruments were, they didn't fully satisfy the needs of artists. While canvas painting is a vertical pursuit, many artists preferred to sketch a scene on a laptop pad. In 1676, Johann Christoph Sturm, a professor of mathematics at Altdorf University in Germany, introduced a reflex mirror. Mounted at a 45 degree angle from the lens, the mirror projected the image to a screen above. This elegant configuration is at the core of modern single lens reflex cameras. Design of a modern single lens reflex camera Reflex mirror and other improvements (contd.) • In 1685, Johann Zahn, a monk from Wurzburg, solved the final piece in the optical puzzle. Improving upon Sturm's design, he introduced lenses of longer and shorter focal lengths. Scenes as wide as a landscape or as close as a portrait could be viewed with a simple change of lens. Page from “Oculus”, Johann Zahn, 1685 Optical Glass • Nearly all the technological knowledge needed to manufacture optical glass was present since the ancient times. • Glass occurs in Egypt and Babylon in 2600 B.C., bottles were made 14th - 15th century B.C., and large scale production in Egypt dates from the 6th century B.C. • Glass blowing is discovered at Sidon in the first century and clear glass is made at Alexandria at about the same time. In Roman times glassworks are established in Italy, Spain, and the Rineland. • In the 13th century Venice again discovers how to make clear glass and established a virtual monopoly. Lenses • Lenses for eyeglasses are first mass-produced in Venice in about 1275. Porta gives the first description of the process in “Magiae Naturalis” (1588), which differs little in principal from that generally used up to 1915. • Porta uses the term pilae vitreae to designate the cylinders of glass from which sections are sliced with a diamond cutter and are sent from Germany to Venice for polishing. This is the term (hollow balls, filled with water) used by to describe magnifiers in antiquity. Part II Technology of Photography Light Sensitive Materials • After the camera obscura had been invented and it’s use widely popularized, many dreamt of capturing the images obtained by the camera obscura permanently. • For hundreds of years before photography was invented, people had been aware that some colors are bleached in the sun, but they had made little distinction between heat, air and light. Camera Obscura, Georg Friedrich Brander (1713 - 1785), 1769 Light Sensitive Materials (contd.) • In 1727, Johann Heinrich Schulze (1687-1744), a German scientist found that silver salts darkened when exposed to sunlight and published results that distinguished between the action of light and heat upon silver salts. • Even after this discovery, a method was needed to halt the chemical reaction so the image wouldn’t darken completely. A Simplified Schematic Representation of the Silver Halide Process The first permanent picture • Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833), a French inventor, was experimenting with camera obscura and silver chloride. • In 1826, he turned to bitumen of Judea, a kind of asphalt that hardened when exposed to light. • Niepce dissolved the bitumen in lavender oil and coated a sheet of pewter with the mixture. • He placed the sheet in the camera and exposed it for eight hours aimed through an open window at his courtyard. • The light forming the image on the plate hardened the bitumen in bright areas and left it soft and soluble in the dark areas. The first permanent picture (contd.) • Niepce then washed the plate with lavender oil, which removed the still-soft bitumen that hadn’t been struck by light, leaving a permanent image. • Niepce named the process heliography - Greek, helios - “sun”, graphos - “drawing”. View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, 1826 Daguerreotypes • News of Niepce’s work had reached another Frenchman, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre (1787-1851) who had been experimenting to capture camera obscura images • In 1829 Niepce and Daguerre became partners, a partnership which lasted until Niepce’s death in 1833. • Daguerre perfected the process, reducing the exposure time from eight hours to half an hour. He found that an image could be made permanent by immersing it in salt. • In 1839 he announced the new process which he named “daguerreotype” before the French Academy. Daguerreotypes (contd.) • A French newspaper praised the process: “What fineness in the strokes! What knowledge of chiaroscuro! What delicacy! What exquisite finish!… How admirably are the foreshortenings given: this is Nature itself!” Still Life in Studio, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, 1837 The earliest known daguerreotype Daguerreotypes (contd.) • Almost immediately after the announcement, hundreds of daguerreotype studios were opened to provide “Sun Drawn Miniatures” to the public. • By 1853 an estimated three million daguerreotypes per year were produced in the United States alone. Daguerreotype of Couple Holding Daguerreotype, Unknown Artist, 1850 Daguerreotypes (contd.) Emily Dickinson at 17, Unknown Artist, 1847 Following achievements • Daguerreotypes had one major drawback, there was no way of producing copies of the original plate. • In June 1940, an English amateur scientist Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) announced a technique which became the basis of modern photography. He called it "calotype" (Greek for "beautiful picture"). The Open Door, William Henry Fox Talbot, 1843 Following achievements (contd.) • The great advantage of Talbot's method was that the process involved both a negative and a positive. The negative image, the calotype, was repeatable indefinitely in a positive print, finally allowing multiple prints. • By 1880, a convenient “dry plate” process was developed, allowing very fast development and opening the field to the general public. Xie Kitchin with Umbrella, Lewis Carroll, 1875 Roll Film • Much of the credit for popularizing photography goes to George Eastman (1854-1932). He began as a bank clerk in Rochester, NY, and built his Eastman Kodak Company into a great enterprise it is today. • In 1884 Eastman invented the equipment to mass produce roll film. “Eastnman’s American Film” was a roll of paper coated with thin gelatin emulsion. • Roll film made possible a new kind of camera - inexpensive, light and simple - that made everyone a potential photographer. In the early years of the company, film base was manufactured and coated on long glass tables. Royal Gold Kodak film, 1994 Kodak Camera • Kodak camera was introduced in 1888. Their slogan was “You push the button, we do the rest”. • The Kodak camera became an international sensation almost overnight. • A new photographic era, of simple light cameras and easy to handle roll film had begun. The first Kodak camera, 1888 Kodak camera advertisement, 1890 Kodak Camera (contd.) George Eastman with a Kodak camera, Fredrick Church, 1890 Color - First Steps • One of the first successes in color photography was demonstrated in 1861 by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell (1831 - 1879). • Maxwell devised a way to recreate the colors of a tartan ribbon. He had three negatives of the ribbon made, each through a different color filter - red, green and blue. • Positive black and white transparencies were made of the three negatives. While projected superimposed though three color filters like those on the camera, the three positives produced an image of the ribbon in it’s original colors. Maxwell’s tartan ribbon • This technique is called “additive color mixing”. Colors are produced by adding together varying amounts of red, green and blue. Subtractive Color Mixing • In 1869, Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) and Charles Cros (1842-1888), two Frenchman working independently announced their research on subtractive color mixing. • In subtractive mixing, which is the basis for modern color photography, colors are created by combining cyan, magenta and yellow dyes (the complements of red, green and blue). The dyes are subtract colors from “white” light that contains all colors. Louis Ducos du Hauron Leaves and Flower Petals, 1869 Commercial Color Photography • The first commercially successful color process was developed by Antoine and Louis Lumiere, two French brothers, in 1907. It was an additive process called “Autochrome”. Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud (1866-1951), Autochrome, Early 20th century. Autochrome • A glass plate was covered with tiny grains of potato starch dyed red-orange, green and violet in a layer only one starch grain thick. • Then a light sensitive emulsion was added. Light struck the emulsion after passing through the colored grains. The emulsion behind each grain was exposed by light from the scene that was the same color as that grain. • The result was a full color transparency. Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud, Autochrome, Early 20th century. Autochrome (contd.) Autochrome landscape of Madeira by Miss Sarah Angelina Acland, 1908-15 Kodachrome • A subtractive color process called kodachrome made color photography practical. • It was perfected by Leopold Mannes (1899-1964) and Leopold Godowsky (1900-1983), two musicians and amateur photographic researchers. • Their collaboration with Eastman Kodak scientists led to the introduction of Kodachrome in 1935. Kodachrome was a single sheet of film coated with three layers of emulsion, each sensitive to one primary color (red, green and blue). A single exposure produced a color image. 2000 1935 Kodachrome (contd.) • Luis Marden, a great photographer working for the National Geographic Society was one of the first pioneers of the revolutionary new film. Luis Marden Career Collage, Sarah Leen Kodachrome (contd.) Party-mask with Shells, Paul Outerbridge, 1936 Digital Photography • In the mid 1970s, Kodak and other companies began investigating filmless technologies that could capture images with solid state circuitry • In 1986, Kodak succeeded in creating a sensor that could record 1.4 million picture elements, or megapixels. • In the 1990s the first digital cameras appeared for commercial use. KODAK PROFESSIONAL DCS 760 Digital Camera, 6 million pixels, 2001 Digital Photography (contd.) • The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how they capture the image. • Instead of film, digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor, usually a charge-couple device (CCD). • On the surface of each of these fingernail-sized silicon chips is a grid containing hundreds of thousands or millions of photosensitive diodes called photosites, photoelements, or pixels. Each photosite captures a single pixel in the photo-graph to be. An image sensor sits against a background enlargement of its square pixels, each capable of capturing one pixel in the final image Part III Photography as Art Photography as Art • Almost from the moment of its birth, photography began staking out claims in areas that had long been reserved for painting. • Some artists refused to accept photography as an art form. In 1862 a group of French artists formally protested that photography was a soulless, mechanical process, “never resulting in works which could ever be compared with those works which are the fruits of intelligence and the study of art” • On the other hand, the invention of the photography caused considerable concern to many artists, who saw their means of livelihood coming to an end. Some even claimed that painting was dead. • Many artists turned to photography, while some used photography as an artistic aid. Pictorialism • From 1850s through the 1870s there was a rage for illustrative photographs similar to a storytelling style of painting popular at the time. • The most famous and commercially the most successful of those intending to elevate photography to an art was Henry Peach Robinson. Fading away, Henry Peach Robinson, 1858 Pictorialism (contd.) • Robinson produced many illustrative and allegorical composite photographs, and became a leader of a so called “High Art” movement in 19th century photography, which advocated beauty and artistic effect no matter how it was obtained. A Holiday in the Wood, Henry Peach Robinson, 1860 Pictorialism (contd.) • Pictorialism is a style of photography in which the actual scene depicted is of less importance than the artistic quality of the image. Pictorialists would be more concerned with the aesthetics and, sometimes, the emotional impact of the image, rather than what actually was in front of their camera. The Two Ways of Life, Oscar Rejlander, 1857 Pictorialism and Impressionism • Because pictorialism was seen as artistic photography, current styles of art were reflected in the works of pictorialists. • This impressionist movement developed from naturalistic painting, particularly landscape, a central feature of 19th Century art. • In May 1874 a group of French artists began to exhibit impressionistic photographs at the studio in Paris. The group continued in being for the next twelve years, and work was exhibited by, among others, Cezanne and Gaugin. Robert Demachy (1859-1936), Untitled, 1906 Pictorialism and Impressionism (contd.) • Another photographer who was influenced by the impressionists was George Davidson, who contended that a sharp photograph was not always to be striven for. In "The Onion field" (1889) he used rough-surfaced paper and a softfocus technique. The Onion Field, George Davidson, 1889 Naturalism • The leader of the naturalistic movement in photography, which emerged in 1880s, was Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) • Emerson's main claim was that one should treat photography as a legitimate art in its own right, rather than seek to imitate other art forms; imitation was not needed - it could confer its own legitimacy without it. • Emerson claimed that true photographic art was possible only through exploiting the camera’s ability to capture reality in a direct way. • The rules of naturalism were: no “faking” by means of lighting, posing, costumes or props; no retouching. A so called “scientific focusing” technique was promoted, which imitated the way the eye perceives a scene: sharply focused on the main subject, with the foreground and the background slightly out of focus. Naturalism (contd.) Gathering Water Lilies, Peter Henry Emerson, 1885 Naturalism (contd.) • Although Emerson later became convinced that photography was not an art form at all but only “a handmaiden to science and art”, his earlier ideas had already influenced a new generation of photographers who no longer felt the need to imitate painting but began to explore photography as an art form of its own right. Ricking the Reed, Peter Henry Emerson, 1885 Naturalism (contd.) A Sea of Steps, Frederick H. Evans, 1903 Straight Photography • In the beginning of the 20th century, with the pictorialism being as strong as ever, a movement was forming to return to the direct and unmanipulated photography, which characterized much of the 19th century imagery. • Alfred Stieglitz (1864-1946), an American photographer, was the leader and catalyst for photography as an art form. Two Towers, New York, Alfred Stieglitz, 1911 Straight Photography (contd.) • In his magazine “Camera Work”, Stieglitz published photographic criticism and works whose only requirement was that they would be worthy of the word “art”. • Stieglitz eventually forced museums and art critics to grant photography a place besides the other arts. The Hand of Man, Alfred Stieglitz, 1902 Straight Photography (contd.) • While first he belonged to the impressionistic movement, he later became a strong advocate of a sharply realistic, “straight photography”. City of Ambition, Alfred Stieglitz, 1910 Straight Photography (contd.) • Paul Strand represented a powerful new approach to photography as an art form. He believed that “objectivity is of the very essence of photography...” Paul Strand, White Fence, 1916 Straight Photography (contd.) Blind, Paul Strand, 1916 Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut, Paul Strand, 1916 City Hall Park, New York, Paul Strand, 1915 Straight Photography (contd.) • Straight photography dominated photography as an art form from the 1930s to the 1950s. • Many famous photographers, such as Ansel Adams, Paul Caponigro and Imogen Cunningham have used the straight approach. Edward Weston, Pepper No. 30, 1930 New Vision of the 20th Century • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946), a Hungarian artist attempted to find new ways of seeing the world and experimented with radical uses of photographic materials in an attempt to replace 19th century pictorialist conventions with a “new vision” compatible with modern life. Through the fence, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1927 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Laszlo Moholy-Nagy explored many ways of expanding photographic vision, through photograms, photomontage, the Sabattier effect (often called solarization), unusual angles, optical distorsions and multiple exposures. Chairs at Margate, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1935 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Moholy felt that these effects “if properly used, help to create a more complex and imaginary language of photography” Photogram, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, 1939 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) • Another artist exploring new art forms was Man Ray (18901976), an American living in Paris. Like Moholy, he used many techniques in his work. Solarization, Man Ray, 1929 New Vision of the 20th Century (contd.) Juliet in Mud Mask, Man Ray, 1945 Acceptance of Photography as an Art Form • Since the 1950s, photography has gained a wide acceptance as an art form throughout the world. • Photography has become a part of the college and art school curriculum. • Art museums have devoted considerable attention to photography. • Art galleries started to sell photographs. • Magazines such as Artforus and Art in America began to regularly publish photographs and essays about photography. A Selection of Photographs Eleanor, Harry Callahan, 1947 The Soul, Drtikol Frantisek, 1930 The Soul The Serra Pe lada Goldm ine Sebastiao Salgado, The Serra Pelada Goldmine, Brazil 1986 Fox Games Fox Games, Sandy Skoglund, 1989 Sula Bassana Sula Bassana, Manuel Vilarino, 1985 I + cat I + cat, Wanda Wulz, 1932 Ansel Adams, The Tetons and the Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming 1942 The Tetons and the Snake River Nude on Sand Nude on Sand, Edward Weston, 1936 John Lennon and Yoko Ono John Lennon and Yoko Ono, New York City, December 8, 1980 Annie Leibovitz Part IV Photographic Techniques Alternative Photographic Techniques • Photography has become an important part of our life. We see photographs everywhere - in magazines, books, on billboards and on the internet. We make photographs ourselves. • But there’s more to photography than that. Like in every other art form, imagination is the only limit. • In the following sections I will describe the less known photographic techniques: • Stereoscopic (3D) • Infrared • Panoramic • Astrophotography • Pinhole Stereoscopic Photography • Stereoscopic, or 3D photography, works because it is able to recreate the illusion of depth. Human eyes are set some distance apart, so each eye sees an image slightly differently. If one takes two separate photographs that same distance apart, with a suitable viewer it is possible to recreate that illusion of depth. • Binocular drawings were made by Giovanni Battista della Porta (1538-1615), which clearly indicated his understanding of binocular vision. • In 1613 the Jesuit Francois d'Aguillion (1567-1617), in his treatise, coined the word "stereoscopique" Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • The first stereoscope viewer was created in 1833 by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875), a British inventor. Because photography was unknown at the time, drawings were used. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • In 1849 Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), an English scholar, invented a box shaped viewer. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • The stereoscope took off in a big way when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert observed one at the exhibition at the Crystal Palace, and Brewster presented her with a stereoscope. • A new industry and form of entertainment was created, it is estimated that by the mid eighteen-fifties over a million homes owned a stereoscope. Mirror Lake, Watkins' and Clouds' Rest, Mts. and Reflections. Photographer: E. & H. T. Anthony & Co. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • Stereo pictures are taken by means of a camera with two lenses. This provides two separate pictures 6 cm apart, about the distance between the eyes. Although the pictures appear the same, they are not. When looked at in a viewer, which has prismatic lenses, your eyes will blend the two views into one and the brain perceives it in three dimensions the same as normal vision. Wet Plate Stereo camera, 1860 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) • From 1850 until World War I, the stereoscope allowed our forefathers to visit every corner of the world. It provides us with a three dimensional historical record of those 70 years. A Typical Tobacco Plantation, Province of Havana, Cuba Strohmeyer & Wyman, 1899 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Looking into the Lake of Fire, Crater of Volcano Kilauea, Hawaiian Islands Strohmeyer & Wyman, 1896 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Railroad Battery Before Petersburg, The War for the Union 1861-1865 neg. 1860s; print 1890s Publisher: Taylor & Huntington Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) View on Kansas River, near Wyandotte, Kansas. Alexander Gardner, 1867 Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) French cavalry horses swimming river in northern France, World War I Keystone View Co. Stereoscopic Photography (contd.) Pyramid Rocks, Echo Canyon Charles Weitfle, 1878 Infrared Photography • Infrared film is sensitive to light in the infrared spectrum and is not visible to the human eye. • The results is that everything looks different than it normally would; foliage is white, skies are black and the photo takes on an eerie and dramatic look. • These film special characteristics which can be exploited for artistic purposes. Windmill on Faial, Andy Finney, 1997 The History of Infrared Photography • Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), a German-born astronomer was searching for suitable glass for colored filters to be fitted on his telescope. • He needed a color that would transmit a maximum of light and a minimum of heat. The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • Using a glass prism to refract light from the sun into its component colors, he moved thermometers through the spectrum. The temperatures increased as the thermometers were moved from violet to red and reached a maximum in the dark region beyond the red end of the visible spectrum. • The Royal Society of London was notified of this discovery in 1800. In his writings, Herschel referred to this phenomenon as “invisible light”. Herschel's Prism and Mirror c1800 The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • In the following years, experiments on the subject were conducted by Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787-1826), a German scientist and Sir John Herschel, son of Sir William. • It was Sir William Abney, president of The Royal Astronomical Society and of The Physical Society of London, who devised the earliest method of direct photography far into the infrared region. Abney published a chart of the infrared region of the solar spectrum, and is credited with first using the term "infrared," in 1880. • After years of further experiments, in 1904, Ben Homelike, an Austrian chemist, discovered the first practical sensitizer for all visible red, pinacyanol. Immediately after the invention of pinacyanol came dicyanide, the first infrared sensitizer. The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • First commercial infra-red film became available around 1931. • Its earliest applications were primarily for scientific purposes; as an investigative tool in criminology, in ophthalmology and other medical fields, in the exploration of space, and in aerial survey work. Varadero, Cuba - Coconut Palm, Andy Finney The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) • Infrared film has also been employed to create special effects in cinema, and to take photographs in the dark without detectable flash. • In recent years, infrared film has gained an ever-widening audience as its accessibility has increased. Hermitage of St John of the Desert, Andy Finney The History of Infrared Photography (contd.) Wandsworth Park, Andy Finney Panoramic Photography • A panorama is an unusually wide picture that shows at least as much width-ways as the eye is capable of seeing. Tower of London, James Rigg, 1997 Panoramic Photography (contd.) • The most common techniques in panoramic photography are "scanning" and "fixed lens". • With the scanning technique the lens is rotating around its rear nodal point (the optical point from which the focal length is measured) opposite a curved film plane. • This method gives a very wide angle of view, similar to that of the fisheye lens, but without the extreme distortion of lines within the image. • In a fixed lens panoramic camera, a wide view angle is achieved optically by the lens. Noblex scanning camera Art Panorama fixed lens panoramic camera The History of Panoramic Photography • Shortly after the invention of photography, the desire to show overviews of cities and landscapes prompted photographers to create panoramas. • The earliest panoramas were made by placing two or more daguerreotype plates side-by-side. View from the top of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., George Barnard, 1864 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) • In the late nineteenth century, cameras were manufactured specifically for producing panoramas. These cameras were either swing-lens cameras, where the lens rotated while the film remained stationary, or 360-degree rotation cameras, where both the camera and the film rotated. Wonder Panoramic camera , Manufacturer: Rudolph Stirn, 1890 C.P. Stirn's patent "The Wonder" Panoramic Camera, covering up to 360°, for up to five exposures on transparent roll film The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) • The first mass-produced American panoramic camera, the Al- Vista, was introduced in 1898. • The following year Eastman Kodak introduced the #4 Kodak Panoram panoramic camera that proved popular with amateur photographers. • The panoramic format has never seized to evolve since and is very popular with contemporary photographers. The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Panorama of Jerusalem, view from the Mount of Olives, 186? The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Davenport, IA, 2nd & Harrison Sts.; F.J. Bandholtz, 1907 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Panoramic landscape along the Elbe, Josef Sudek, around 1956 The History of Panoramic Photography (contd.) Vultures Dale, Province of Chubut. Argentina, Alberto Gandsas Astrophotography • The universe is full of spectacular things. What can be seen with the naked eye is a small fraction of those wonders. • Astrophotography is about capturing parts of our universe with a camera. Corona - Total Solar Eclipse, Andreas Gada and Jerry Lodriguss The History of Astrophotography • Before the invention of photography observers sat at telescopes and sketched what they saw. • Combining the optics of a telescope with a specially constructed camera to make the first photographic plates took place around the 1840s. • By the turn of the 1900s astronomers turned their attention to making telescopes specifically for photography and not for observing. • This in turn led to even better imaging of galaxies and star clusters as well as better spectral images for deeper scientific analysis. The History of Astrophotography (contd.) • During the middle of the 1900s telescopes were manufactured for consumers leading to an explosion in the amateur astronomical community. • Color film that works well with the pursuit of astrophotography appeared on the market during the early 1980s and quickly evolved into a fantastic tool for capturing beautiful color images of space. M31 - The Great Galaxy in Andromeda, Jerry Lodriguss The History of Astrophotography (contd.) • Today, astrophotography is a science and an art form. The images of the heavens captured by amateur astronomers at the dawn of the 2000s truly would astound astronomers of just 25 years previous. B33 - The Horsehead Nebula, Jerry Lodriguss Pinhole Photography • Pinhole photography is lensless photography. A tiny hole replaces the lens. Light passes through the hole; an image is formed in the camera. • Basically a pinhole camera is a box, with a tiny hole in one end and film or photographic paper in the other. Tom Baril, 1998 Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Pinhole cameras are used for fun, for art and for science. • Pinhole images are softer - less sharp - than pictures made with a lens. The images have nearly infinite depth of field. Wide angle images remain absolutely rectilinear. On the other hand, pinhole images suffer from greater chromatic aberration than pictures made with a simple lens, and they tolerate little enlargement. From the window series, Robert Mann Pinhole Photography (contd.) Paris, Ilan Wolf, 1998 The History of Pinhole Photography • Sir David Brewster, a Scottish scientist, was one of the first to make pinhole photographs, in the 1850s. He also coined the very word "pinhole”. • By the late 1880s the Impressionist movement in painting was a certain influence on photography. Different schools or tendencies developed in photography. • The "old school" believed in sharp focus and good lenses; the "new school", the "pictorialists", tried to achieve the atmospheric qualities of paintings. Some of the pictorialists experimented with pinhole photography. "Expeditions" , Ruth Thorne-Thomsen, 1979 The History of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Pinhole photography became popular in the 1890s. Commercial pinhole cameras were sold in Europe, the United States and in Japan. 4000 pinhole cameras ("Photomnibuses") were sold in London alone in 1892. • The cameras seem to have had the same status as disposable cameras today - none of the "Photomnibuses" have been preserved for posterity in camera collections. • Mass production of cameras and "new realism" in the 20th century soon left little space for pinhole photography. • By the 1930s the technique was hardly remembered, or only used in teaching. Eastman Kodak Pinhole Camera 1930 The Revival of Pinhole Photography • In the mid-1960s several artists, unaware of each other, began experimenting with the pinhole technique - Paolo Gioli in Italy, Gottfried Jager in Germany, David Lebe, Franco Salmoiraghi, Wiley Sanderson and Eric Renner in the USA. • In 1971 The Time-Life Books published The Art of Photography in the well-known Life Library of Photography and included one of Eric Renner's panoramic pinhole images. Lago Massiore, North Italy, Peter Olpe, 1978 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • The June 1975 issue of Popular Photography published the article "Pinholes for the People", based on Phil Simkin's monthlong project with 15,000 hand-assembled and preloaded pinhole cameras in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. People came into the museum, picked up a camera, made an exposure. The images, developed in a public darkroom in the museum, were continually displayed in the museum Brooklyn Bridge, Dona McAdams, 1983 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • In the 1970s pinhole photography gained increasing popularity. A number of articles and some books were published, but the critics tended to ignore pinhole photography in art. Beth III, Mimbres Hot Springs Ranch, Nancy Spencer, 1995 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • In 1985 Lauren Smith published The Visionary Pinhole, the first broad documentation of the diversity of pinhole photography. • The first national exhibition of pinhole photography in the USA was organized by Willie Anne Wright, at the The Institute of Contemporary Art of the Virginia Museum in 1982. In 1988 the first international exhibition, "Through a Pinhole Darkly", was organized by the Fine Arts Museum of Long Island. B.B. and Me, David Lebe, 1974 hand colored pinhole photograph from 4 pinhole camera The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) • Large number of pinhole artists became active in the 1980s. • At least six commercial pinhole cameras were manufactured in the 1980s. • Today, thousands of pinhole artists are active throughout the world. Sieb, Jurgen Konigs, 1990 The Revival of Pinhole Photography (contd.) London, Ilan Wolf, 1991 The End... Bibliography • A New History of Photography, edited by Michel Frizot • Photography, Barbara London and John Upton • A History of Photography, Robert Leggat http://www.rleggat.com/photohistory/ • Pinhole Photography, Jon Grepstad http://home.online.no/~gjon/pinhole.htm • The Complete History of Cinematography http://www.precinemahistory.net/ • Reclaiming Technology, Jno Cook http://jnocook.net/reclaim/ • Invisible Light, Infrared Photography by Andy Finney http://www.atsf.co.uk/ilight/ Images • Title page: Harold Edgerton, Milk Drop Coronet, 1957 • Final Page: View of the Earth from the Command Module Columbia. 20 July 1969. • Museum of the History of Science, Oxford http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/ • George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film http://www.geh.org/ • Niepce Museum of Photography http://www.museeniepce.com/ • Explore Art at the Getty http://www.getty.edu/ • The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/ • Masters of Photography http://www.masters-of-photography.com/ Images (contd.) • California Heritage Collection http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/CalHeritage/ • Taking the Long View, Panoramic Photographs Collection http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pnhtml/pnhome.html • Panoramic landscape photography of Argentina http://www.gandsas.com/ • Catching the Light - Astrophotography http://www.astropix.com/ • Pinhole Resource Online http://www.pinholeresource.com/